An access to adequate and safe blood transfusion services is an essential measure of basic healthcare systems. The main purpose of hemovigilance is to enhance the quality and safety of the blood transfusion chains, which are implemented for improving the quality of the blood transfusion chain processes, especially focusing on blood safety. Globally, the framework of hemovigilance is extending as one of the key escalations to the group of the human services administrations, recognizing restructured blood transfusions administrations.
The core objective of this review article is to highlight the objectives of the hemovigilance framework, historical aspects of the hemovigilance framework around the world and the scenario of Nepal. Furthermore, it likewise features the scopes and strategies for implementation of hemovigilance at a hospital. An acceptance and incorporation of the hemovigilance system in an oncology hospital or in any tertiary care hospitals in Nepal can avert the incidence or reappearance of adverse events due to the transfusion identified with the whole transfusion chain process. Globally, including the least developed country like Nepal, the hemovigilance framework must be incorporated and systematized for upgrading transfusion and general society certainty additionally regarding blood and its products. Different strategies must be made for the successful implementation and strengthening the hemovigilance system.
In conclusion, there is an interminable and endless necessity for the effort on hemovigilance; although the rules, regulations, and tools are in place. With the end goal to have a productive hemovigilance framework in the least developed countries like Nepal, an extensive methodology and enormous ideas are required.
Background: Today, social media seems to be a common forum for sharing information, discuss ideas and knowledge. The number of social media users are at increasing trend even in developing countries. The importance of using social media, especially in delivering healthcare services information, include the creation of awareness and firsthand information of health and health-related issues (effect of adverse drug reactions, reporting, among others). Purpose: The main objective of this work is to outline and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using social media in the health area. Specifically, the objectives of this paper are to compare the role of health professionals and consumers with special reference to social media; detect the validity of the information available in social media, and understand how to deal with incorrect/false information, and to analyze the main characteristics of the publications on the subject social media in healthcare.
Methods: This article is a narrative review, also a descriptive quantitative research, using the techniques of bibliometrics and sociometry in order to obtain information relevant to the subject in question. Results: The results presented the countries, researchers and universities that produced the most on the subject, and demonstrated the efficiency of bibliometrics and sociometry techniques for health research, going beyond a narrative review.
Conclusion: It is concluded that social media is a competitive differential in the provision of health services. To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback. Suggestion: To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback.
The biological and chemical properties of the medicinally important high altitudinal plant Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don were assayed. Extracts at a concentration of 100 mg-ml-1 from leaves and flowers were collectively obtained by employing hot extraction method with different solvents. The antibacterial and antifungal properties were assayed against different clinical bacteria (two Gram+ and six Gram-) and six phytopathogenic fungi. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium were the most inhibited bacteria, while Fusarium eridiforme, a fungus, was highly inhibited. However, all the tested bacteria were resistant to n-hexane and chloroform extracts. Of all the extracts obtained, the ethyl acetate fraction, followed by the hot methanolic extract, was effective against all the pathogenic strains tested. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) values of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts on bacteria ranged from 1.562 mg-ml”
to 25.0 mg-ml”
, whereas MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration) values of n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on fungi varied from 1.562 mg-ml-1 to 12.50 mg-ml-1, which are slightly higher than expected. The extracts showed no activity against Exserohilum turticum and Stenophylum sp. There was a highly significant difference in the zone of inhibition between different extract fractions and bacterial or fungal strains. A preliminary qualitative phyto-chemical assay revealed the presence of polyphenols, reducing compounds, quinones, sterol, triterpenes and fatty acids in leaves and flowers of the test plant. The observed antimicrobial effects are believed to be due to the presence of these compounds. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts would apparently explain the widespread use of this plant for controlling human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi that widely destroy crops in Nepal. This research reveals R. anthopogon to be a highly promising source of potent antimicrobial drugs that could be used to design therapeutic drugs in the pharmaceutical industry.