Daniela Ştefănescu, S.P. Pereira, M.M. Filip, A. Săftoiu and S. Cazacu
Background. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) associated with colorectal cancer risk in long-standing diseases. In order to assess the colonic mucosa and to discover dysplastic or neoplastic lesions, advanced endoscopic techniques are needed. Such techniques are detailed in this review: chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI), i-SCAN, Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE).
Aim. The aim of the review is to describe and establish the clinical impact of advanced endoscopic techniques, that could be used in IBD patients’examination in order to assess mucosal healing, microscopic inflammation, dysplasia or neoplasia.
Materials and Methods. A literature research about new endoscopic approaches of patients with IBD was made.
Results. A lot of studies have been performed to reveal which imaging technique might be used for IBD surveillance. Regarding dysplasia or neoplasia detection and mucosal healing or inflammation assessment, CE proved to be superior to white light endoscopy (WLE), while NBI and AFI did not show an encouraging result. I-SCAN did not improve the colonoscopy quality while FICE has been used in a few studies. CLE could be used to characterize a lesion, providing the same results as conventional histology.
Conclusion. At the moment, CE is the only technique which has been included in guidelines for IBD surveillance. CLE can be used to assess any lesion detected with WLE during surveillance, while the other imaging techniques require more studies to determine their efficacy or inefficacy.
M.I. Costache, Mihai Ioana, Sevastiţa Iordache, D. Ene, Cornelia Alexandra Costache and A. Săftoiu
Angiogenesis is a crucial event for tumor growth and it is regulated predominantly by several different growth factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor protein family (VEGF) and its receptors are probably the most important tissue factors responsible for angioblast differentiation and tube formation. VEGF protein family currently comprises several members: VEGF (or VEGF-A), VEGF-B, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, VEGF-F, placental growth factor (PlGF), and their receptors VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. VEGF is a key angiogenic growth factor and its level of expression is a critical marker for detection of the angiogenic diseases. The potent role of VEGF in tumor angiogenesis has been widely described in the past decade, being expressed in most types of nondigestive and digestive cancers. VEGF family members play an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer (especially VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2). VEGF-A is the most specific and prominent angiogenic factor among all family members and VEGFR-2 is the most important receptor in evaluating the angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer. Thus, VEGF overexpression may be considered as a diagnostic marker and as a poor prognostic factor of the disease.