A. Abu_Al_Aish, M. Rehman, M. Abdullah and A. Abu Hassan
Microcontroller Based Capacitive Mass Measuring System
The paper deals with a new design of a capacitive sensor developed for the accurate and precise measurement of mass. It employs a co-axial cylinder based capacitive sensor whose capacitance decreases linearly with mass, due to the shielding effect of the conducting shield, which moves between the stationary cylinders of the capacitor with the movement of the mass holder. An accurate capacitance to voltage converting system is used to detect the mass in terms of voltage. Linear relationship between mass and output signal is obtained with the help of microcontroller. The presented sensor has high order of linearity, flexibility in design and controllable damping. The overall size of the sensor may be reduced to very small values by this design. It is highly robust and may be attached to any complex system. For the spring, used in the system, mass sensor can measure up to 7 kg.
A.Z. Khan, T. Shah, S. Khan, A. Rehman, H. Akbar, A. Muhammad and S.K. Khalil
The objective of this study was to assess the comparative efficiency of different priming techniques on germination and early seedling growth of maize cultivars. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of different seed invigoration treatments on seed germination and vigor traits of three maize hybrids, Pioneer 3025, Pioneer 70 and Baber at Agronomy research laboratory, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The experiment was laid in completely randomized design (CRD) and was replicated thrice. The treatments included control treatment (T1) unsoaked/dry seed, (T2) hydropriming with distilled water for 24 hrs, (T3) halo priming treatments with NaCl (3% solution) for 24 hrs, (T4) osmopriming with PEG-6000 for 24 hrs and (T5), hormonal priming with GA3 for 24 hrs. The results showed that seed invigoration treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) PEG-6000 and hydropriming with distilled water for 24 hrs gave higher germination, decreased days to 50% germination, increased shoot length, root length, seedling fresh and dry weight, as compared to halo priming with NaCl and control treatment. It is concluded that seed invigoration with GA3, osmopriming with PEG-6000 and hydropriming with distilled water for 24 hrs serve as an appropriate treatment for accelerating the emergence and growth parameters of maize hybrid. Pioneer 3025 showed its superiority over other cultivars in all the studied parameters.
M.A. Sarwar, M.N. Khalil-Ur-Rehman, H.M.R. Javeed, W. Ahmad, M.A. Shehzad, S. Iqbal and H.T. Abbas
An experiment to evaluate comparative performance of various sunflower hybrids for yield and its related attributes was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during autumn 2008. Twelve sunflower hybrids, i.e. G-101 (H1), DK-4040 (H2), SF-187 (H3), S-278 (H4), Hysun-33 (H5), FH-37 (H6), Ausigold-61 (H7), Ausigold-62 (H8), FSS-50 (H9), NX- 00989 (H10), NX-00997 (H11) and XIYU-12 (H12) were included in the trail. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD), having three replicates with plot size of 5m x 3m. Statistical analysis of the data showed significant differences for all the parameters. It was observed that Hysun-33 showed greater plant height (148.47 cm) and achene per head (682.70) than all other hybrids, however in case of yield (3891.0 kg ha-1) and other related traits such as number of plants m-2, leaf area index, head diameter and 1000-achene weight SF-187 displayed better performance by recording values (6.87), (4.33), (18.62) and (49.11g), respectively, following Hysun-33 for most of the traits. From the results of experiment it can be concluded that the hybrids SF-187 and Hysun-33 showed high productivity and are best adapted to the climatic conditions of Faisalabad.
Nouman Rafiq, Waqar A.A. Syed, Aulia Rifada, M. Asad Ghufran, Ijaz-Ur-Rehman Shah, Ahsan Ali and Wiqar Hussain Shah
We report a simple approach for synthesizing monodispersed, crystalline and size-tunable tin sulfide nanoparticles for environment friendly next generation solar cell applications. Both SnS and SnS2 nanoparticles could be a potential nanomaterial for solar cells. The structural, morphological, thermal and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD spectra revealed hexagonal and orthorhombic phases of SnS and SnS2 nanoparticles, respectively, where the grains size ranged from 11 nm to 30 nm. The weight percentage as a function of temperature was determined using TGA analysis. Functional groups were observed by FT-IR. The energy bandgap was determined as 1.41 eV showing usefulness of the nanoparticles in next generation environmental friendly solar energy applications.
N. Sarwar, Atique-Ur-Rehman, O. Farooq, K. Mubeen, A. Wasaya, W. Nouman, M. Zafar Ali and M. Shehzad
Drought stress creates imbalance or deficiency of some growth regulators in plants, which leads toward reduced crop yield. Gibberellic acid is one of the most important growth regulators in plants, which improve drought tolerance in plants under optimum concentration. A field experiment was conducted under exogenous application of gibberellic acid under normal or drought condition and with or without gibberellic acid application. Crop growth and yield parameters were assesses during the experimentation. Study revealed that crop reduced growth in term of leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and total dry matter (TDM) under drought condition, while these parameters were improved with gibberellic acid application. Similary, improved growth rate resulted in better performance of yield attributes (cob length, cob diameter, grains per cob, grain weight and yield). Gibberellic acid application improved the crop performance at optimum irrigation, as well as under reduced irrigation. Although highest crop yield was recorded with gibberellic acid application under optimum irrigation level, while its application under drought stress improved crop tolerance and resulted in better crop yield, similar to optimum irrigation level. Exogenous application of gibberellic acid not only improved the drought tolerance in maize, but also increased the crop yield under normal condition.
The interplay between groups and graphs have been the most famous and productive area of algebraic graph theory. In this paper, we introduce and study the graphs whose vertex set is group G such that two distinct vertices a and b having di erent orders are adjacent provided that o(a) divides o(b) or o(b) divides o(a).
Syed Mansoor Ali, W. A. Farooq, M. R. Baig, M.A. Shar, M. Atif, S. S. Alghamdi, M. S. Algarawi, Naeem Ur-Rehman and Muhammad Hammad Aziz
We have investigated the influence of Ag doping on zinc oxide thin films. Pure and Ag doped, preferentially oriented transparent zinc oxide thin films were prepared by sol gel technique on a glass substrate using diethyl amine as a stabilizer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films with hexagonal wurtzite type structure were polycrystalline in nature with a preferred grain orientation in the 101 direction. The crystallite sizes decreased from 34 nm to 27 nm after silver doping. Both photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements showed that the band gap increased after the Ag doping. The structure and optical characterization studies clearly indicated the incorporation of Ag in ZnO. Hence, the observed increase in the optical band gap and decrease in crystallite size can be directly attributed to the effect of Ag ion incorporation into the ZnO lattice.