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  • Author: A. Moradi x
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Priming is one of the seed enhancement methods that might be resulted in increasing seed performance (germination and emergence) under stress conditions, such as salinity. Salinity is a major environmental stress which adversely affects germination and seedling establishment in a wide variety of crops. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in completely randomized design (CRD) at Seed Research Laboratory of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Iran. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different priming methods on seed germination of two medicinal plants including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) under salinity stress. Treatments were combinations of two levels of salinity stress (0 and 10 dsm−1) and five levels of priming (control = non-priming), GA3, manitol, NaCl and distilled water) with three replications. Seeds of lemon balm and cumin were primed for 24 h at 25°C. Results revealed that different growth traits (including germination percentage, germination rate, seedling dry weight, plumule and radical length) significantly (p=0.05) decreased with applying salinity. However, priming of seeds with different materials particularly GA3 was useful for alleviating salt stress effects and improving germination and seedling establishment under salt stress. Under salinity condition, primed seeds possessed more germination and emergence than control. The result of this experiment is consistent with the hypothesis that under salinity stress, priming can prepare a suitable metabolic reaction in seeds and can improve seed germination performance and seedling establishment.


Bami cultivar of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was inoculated with salt-tolerant Sinorhizobium meliloti in solution culture with different salt concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mmoles 1-1NaCl) added immediately at the time of inoculation. The results indicated that S. meliloti formed an infective and effective symbiosis with alfalfa under saline and nonsaline conditions. Salinity significantly decreased shoot and root dry weight, nodule weight and mean nodule weight. Roots were more sensitive than shoots, and N2 fixation was more sensitive to salinity than was plant growth. Analyses of ammonium assimilating enzymes in the nodule showed that glutamine synthetase appeared to be more tolerant to salinity than glutamate synthase, and that it limits ammonium assimilation under saline stress.


Most legumes in natural conditions form a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM fungi in saline soils have been reported to improve salinity tolerance and growth in plants. In the present study, interaction between mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae, and salinity stress in relation to plant growth, nitrogen fixation, and nutrient accumulation was evaluated in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Two alfalfa cultivars (Bami and Yazdi) were compared under different levels of salinity with and without mycorrhizal inoculations. Salt stress resulted in a noticeable decline in shoot and root dry matter accumulation, resulting in a decline in the shoot to root ratio (SRR) in all plants. However, Bami was found to be more tolerant to salinity than Yazdi. Inoculated plants exhibited better growth and biomass accumulation under stressed as well as unstressed conditions. Mycorrhizal colonization (MC) was reduced with increasing salinity levels, but the mycorrhizal dependency (MD) increased, which was more evident in Yazdi. Nodulation was completely inhibited under salt stress conditions for both non - AM inoculated alfalfa varieties. Nodulation only occurred in inoculated plants. Nitrogenase activity was reduced with increasing salt concentrations. AM inoculated plants had considerably higher nodule numbers, dry weights, and nitrogenase activity under nonsaline environments. Bami had a comparatively lower Na+ concentration and higher K+ and Ca2+ concentrations than Yazdi. Although nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents declined with increasing salinity, Bami had higher levels of N and P, as compared with Yazdi. Plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae had better plant growth and nitrogen fixation under salt stress.


Approximately 34% of soils in Asia are influenced by salts. With about 25 million ha of saline and alkaline lands, about 15% of the country, Iran has the most saline lands in Asia after China, India, and Pakistan due to its geographical position, climate and human activities. This research was done due to determine the effective factors on soil and water salinization. At the first the boundaries of this region were characterized using GIS, then landuses were determined for field survey and also soil sampling in nine landuses were done according to both factors of planting pattern and water resources in each unit. The soil profile was prepared and soil samples were obtained from surface depths of (0 - 50 cm) and some factors such as soil texture EC, SAR, pH, CaCO3, Cl and potassium were measured. For study of water resources some samples were obtained from 30 wells and also from upland runoff, then soil and water sample were analyzed and some parameters such as EC, SAR, Cl and pH were measured. Finally, according to data base, geological map, topography map, landuse map, soil and water measured data and also field studies, soil and water salinization schedule and region status were investigated. The results showed that important factors influencing water salinization in Ghaleh Ghazi region (Iran) are geological formations located in aquifer recharge and climate condition. Important factors of soil salinization in region are irrigation with saline water, improper irrigation method, unsuitable planting method, climate condition and landform.


For a given graph G=(V, E), a Roman {2}-dominating function f : V (G) → {0, 1, 2} has the property that for every vertex u with f(u) = 0, either u is adjacent to a vertex assigned 2 under f, or is adjacent to at least two vertices assigned 1 under f. The Roman {2}-domination number of G, γ { R2}(G), is the minimum of ΣuV (G) f(u) over all such functions. In this paper, we initiate the study of the problem of finding Roman {2}-bondage number of G. The Roman {2}-bondage number of G, b { R2}, is defined as the cardinality of a smallest edge set E′E for which γ { R2}(GE′) > γ {R2}(G). We first demonstrate complexity status of the problem by proving that the problem is NP-Hard. Then, we derive useful parametric as well as fixed upper bounds on the Roman {2}-bondage number of G. Specifically, it is known that the Roman bondage number of every planar graph does not exceed 15 (see [S. Akbari, M. Khatirinejad and S. Qajar, A note on the Roman bondage number of planar graphs, Graphs Combin. 29 (2013) 327–331]). We show that same bound will be preserved while computing the Roman {2}-bondage number of such graphs. The paper is then concluded by computing exact value of the parameter for some classes of graphs.


In ecological studies, the population of interest is often spread over a large area. In these studies, obtaining a sample with good spatial coverage is an important feature in the design of a survey. In most cases adjacent, or neighbouring, units are more similar than units further apart and the resulting spatial autocorrelation should be taken into account.

Two dimensional systematic sampling (grid-based sampling) is one conventional method that has been used in environmental studies to achieve spatial coverage of the area.

Balanced Acceptance Sampling (BAS) is a new method for selecting well spread out sampling units over the study area.

In this paper we will compare the BAS design and two dimensional systematic sampling for selecting samples (quadrats) from a large area, using a case study of a crab species from an intertidal marine zone in Qatar.


Seed priming with gibberellin (GA) enhances seed germination performance; but the quality of primed seeds in aging condition often reduces more than non-primed seeds. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect(s) of heat shock treatments on germination characteristics and enzyme activity of primed mountain rye (Secale montanum) seeds with gibberellin under accelerated aging. Heat shock treatments, can substantially decrease the speed of quality reduction of mountain rye (Secale montanum) primed seeds. In primed seeds with gibberellin, which has non-aged, the highest germination percentage (GP) and normal seedling percentage (NSP) was attained from heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h, also after 3 days aging, it was attained from heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h. After 3 days of aging the highest germination index (GI) was attained from unprimed seeds, but no significant difference with heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h. The minimum means time germination (MTG) was in heat shock treatment at 30°C for 3 h in non-aged seeds. After 3 days of aging, heat shock treatment reduce MTG as compared to the primed seeds. Heat shock treatment at 35°C for 3 h increased seed vigor index (SVI) as compared to the unprimed and primed seed in non-aged seeds and after 3 days aging. Seedling length (SL) increases with heat shock treatment at 30°C for 4 h in non-aged seeds as compared to the primed and unprimed seeds, but after 3 days of aging heat shock treatment except at 35°C for 3 h and 40°C for 4 h reduced SL as compared to the primed and unprimed seeds. Also, heat shock treatments increase some antioxidant enzymes [Catalase (CAT), Ascorbat peroxidase (APX)].