Steel frame wind bracing systems are usually made of hot rolled profiles connected to frame elements directly or through a gusset plate. The behaviour of angle bracing members is generally complex since controlled by tension or compression, bending and torsion. The common practice is to transform the problem of complex behaviour into the buckling strength of a truss member. This paper deals with an analytical formulation of the force-deformation characteristic of a single angle brace subjected to compression. A strut model takes into consideration the effect of brace end connections and softening effect of its force-deformation characteristic. Two different boundary conditions, typical for engineering practice, are dealt with. Experimental program of testing the behaviour of angle brace in portal sub-frame specimens is described. Results of experimental investigations are presented. They are used for the validation of developed model. Conclusions are formulated with reference to the application of validated brace model in the analysis of braced steel frameworks.
This paper is entirely devoted to practical aspects of direct design and assessment of safety and serviceability of steel planar framework using advanced analysis. The development of advanced analysis has been driven by a desire for a more accurate representation of the behaviour of planar framework by considering the beam and spring numerical modelling technique together with plasticity and geometrically nonlinear effects as well as structural imperfections accounted for. The validated 2D version of CSD advanced analysis developed by the author is used in this paper for its practical application towards the resistance and serviceability assessment of existing simple construction framework. This steel braced frame was a subject of technical expertise. The same structure geometry but with different joint detailing is then considered to show how the effect of joint properties may affect the braced frame performance. Results of investigations are presented in the form of frame global response at both the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state, and also in the form of member local responses. Conclusions with regard to general design and assessment practice are drawn.
This paper deals with a Continuous Stiffness Degradation (CSD) version of advanced analysis of braced steel framing. It is based on the gradual stiffness degradation concept of frame and truss members. A novelty of the approach presented herein is related to the introduction of the bracing member response in the whole range of its behaviour in tension and compression, including the post-limit range. The validation of the proposed advanced analysis is performed for braced framework with rolled angle section braces. The validation of the brace force-deformation model has been presented in the author’s earlier publication. The basis for the presented CSD advanced analysis is briefly summarized and its difference with regard to the Refined Plastic Hinge (RPH) version of advanced analysis is emphasized. Experimental investigations dealing with tests on portal braced sub-frame specimens are referred to briefly. Results of the experimental investigations are presented in the form of a frame global response and they are used for the validation of the developed computational model.