X-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Cu K-edge were used to study the atomic structure in copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films. Textured nanocrystalline films are obtained upon dc magnetron sputtering on substrates heated at about 190 °C, whereas amorphous films having strongly disordered structure already in the second coordination shell of copper are deposited in the absence of heating.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Cu K-edge is used to study X-ray induced photoreduction of copper oxide to metallic copper. Although no photoreduction has been observed in microcrystalline copper oxide, we have found that the photoreduction kinetics of nanocrystalline CuO depends on the crystallite size, temperature and pressure. The rate of photoreduction increases for smaller nanoparticles but decreases at low temperature and higher pressure.
The article summarizes information on the nematodes parasitic in wild Carnivora of Ukraine. Totally, 50 species of nematodes are known to parasitise carnivorans in the country, 30 species were registered in the present study. Nematodes were found in 14 species of examined hosts from the families Canidae, Mustelidae and Felidae. Maximum diversity of nematodes of carnivorans was observed in Polissia (forest zone in the north of the country) and in Kherson Region in the south. Hosts from the family Canidae harboured 19 nematode species; studied species of the Mustelidae were infected with 15 nematode species, 6 of them were also found in Canidae. The wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber) and the lynx (Lynx lynx Linnaeus) harboured only two species of nematodes, both are specific parasites of these hosts. The most comprehensive information concerns the nematode communities of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus) and the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus), with 19 and 9 nematode species found, correspondingly. From 1 to 6 nematode species were found in other species of carnivorans.
Single-crystal, microcrystalline and nanocrystalline nickel oxides (NiO) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. A new band at ~200 cm−1 and TO-LO splitting of the band at 350–650 cm−1 have been found in the spectra of single-crystals NiO(100), NiO(110) and NiO(111). The Raman spectra of microcrystalline (1500 nm) and nanocrystalline (13–100 nm) NiO resemble those of the single crystals. They all contain the two-magnon band at 1500 cm−1, indicating that the oxides remain at room temperature in the antiferromagnetic phase. Besides, a new sharp Raman band has been observed at 500 cm−1 in nanocrystalline NiO. Its temperature dependence suggests the magnetic origin of the band, possibly associated with the one-phonon–one-magnon excitation at the Brillouin zone centre.
Thin films of amorphous Si on glass were crystallized by pulsed nano- and picosecond lasers. Two methods for creating the desired patterns of crystallized regions were used. In the former, the pattern is produced by a focused laser beam, and in the latter it is made using a prefabricated mask. The electric conductivity of crystallized films increases by more than 4 orders of magnitude in comparison with untreated amorphous films.