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Open access

K. Sobczak, H. Dyja and A. Kawałek

Abstract

The article discusses the influence of rolling in the newly designed slitting-bending grooves on closing internal material discontinuities in continuous ingots. The defects located in the axial area of a strand, i.e. axial porosity and contraction cavity, were analysed. Numerical and experimental studies of the rolling process of flat bars for feedstock with marked materials discontinuities simulating actual defects occurring in an ingot were conducted. For comparison purposes, rolling of feedstock with discontinuities in traditional grooves was conducted. The numerical simulations were carried out using the Forge 2008¯software programme. The experimental studies were conducted in a D150 laboratory rolling mill. In the research, the S355J2G3 structural steel and lead were used. Distributions of temperature, intensity of deformation and stress in a cross-section of strands after rolling were analysed. Changes in the surface areas of the discontinuities in feedstock after rolling in shape and traditional grooves were examined.

It was concluded that introduction of grooves with complex shapes may contribute to the improvement of internal quality of finished products. The complex shape of the tools has allowed for an almost 100% closure of the discontinuities located in the central part of a strand, already at the initial stages of the process, unlike in case of the traditional production method, where the discontinuities were transferred even until the final product. Applying the newly designed slitting-bending grooves enables utilisation of a smaller number of edge grooves at the initial stage of the rolling process, where reopening of freshly welded defects might occur.

Open access

M. Kwapisz, M. Knapiński, H. Dyja and A. Kawałek

Abstract

The paper present the results of numerical simulations of the alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression process, performed using commercial software designed for the thermomechanical analysis of plastic working processes, Forge 2009. The novel method of alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression, proposed by the authors, is characterized by the occurrence of strain states in the material being plastically worked, which are similar to those occurring in the equal channel angular pressing and cyclic extrusion compression processes.

It can be found from preliminary studies carried out that the two alternate operations, i.e. extrusion and multiaxial compression, result in a strain accumulation and the formation of a strain state particularly favourable to grain refinement.

As shown by preliminary numerical studies performed by the authors, a zone of large plastic strains forms at the lateral side of the stamping during extrusion of material, which gradually fades along the stamping axis direction. After the multiaxial compression operation, when the material has been brought again to its original shape, the large strains zone moves and then settles in the form of a torus under the stamp. The subsequent extrusion process results in the formation of a new large strains zone being located at the lateral stamping side, and, at the same time, the displacement of the previously deformed material towards its axis. Repeating the above operations many times should bring about large magnitudes of homogeneous deformation within the entire volume of the material examined. The main problem during carrying out practical tests will be to determine the optimal shapes of dies and stamps, which would assure the intended strain state to be obtained in the material, and would also prevent the buckling and overlaps of the material during multiaxial compression.

Open access

A. Kawałek, H. Dyja, M. Knapinski, G. Banaszek and M. Kwapisz

Abstract

In order to enhance the quality of plates, various solutions are being implemented, including normalizing rolling, the process of rolling followed by accelerated cooling, as well as new roll gap control systems. The hydraulic positioning of rolls and the working roll bending system can be mentioned here. The implementation of those systems results in increased loads of the rolling stands and working tools, that is the rolls. Another solution aimed at enhancing the cross-sectional and longitudinal shape of rolled plate is the introduction of asymmetric rolling, which consists in the intentional change of the stress and strain state in the roll gap. Asymmetric rolling systems have been successfully implemented in strip cold rolling mills, as well as in sheet hot rolling mills.

The paper present results of studies on the effect of roll rotational speed asymmetry and other rolling process parameters on the change in the shape of rolled strip and the change of rolls separating force for the conditions of normalizing rolling of plates in the finishing stand. The variable process parameters were: the roll rotational speed asymmetry factor, av; the strip shape factor, h0/D; and the relative rolling reduction, ε. Working rolls of the diameter equal to 1000 mm and a constant lower working roll rotational speed of n = 50 rpm were assumed for the tests. The asymmetric rolling process was run by varying the rotational speed of the upper roll, which was lower than that of the lower roll. The range of variation of the roll rotational speed factor, av =vd/vg, was 1.01÷1.15. A strip shape factor of h0/D = 0.05÷0.014 was assumed. The range of rolling reductions applied was ε = 0.08÷0.50. The material used for tests was steel of the S355J2G3 grade. For the simulation of the three-dimensional plastic flow of metal in the roll gap during the asymmetric hot rolling of plates, the mathematical model of the FORGE 2008 ® program was used.

For the mathematical description of the effect of rolling parameters on the strip curvature and rolls separating force the special multivariable polynomial interpolation was used. This method of tensor interpolation in Borland Builder programming environment was implemented.

On the basis of the carried out analysis can be state, that by using the appropriate relative rolling reduction and working roll peripheral speed asymmetry factor for a given feedstock thickness (strip shape ratio) it is possible to completely eliminate the unfavorable phenomenon of strip bending on exit from the roll gap, or to obtain the permissible strip curvature which does not obstructs the free feed of the strip to the next pass or transferring the plate to the accelerated plate cooling stations. Additionally by introducing the asymmetric plate rolling process through differentiating working roll peripheral speeds, depending on the asymmetry factor used, the magnitude of the total roll separating force can be reduced and, at the same time, a smaller elastic deflection of rolling stand elements can be achieved. As a result smaller elastic deflection of the working rolls, smaller dimensional deviations across its width and length finished plate can be obtained.

Open access

A. Kawałek, H. Dyja, A.M. Gałkin, K.V. Ozhmegov and S. Sawicki

Abstract

The article presents results of physical modelling of processes of plastic working of the modified Zr-1%Nb zirconium alloy, obtained using different methods of the plastometric testing. The „Gleeble 3800‚ metallurgical process simulator, a DIL805 A/D dilatometer with a plastometric attachment, and a „Setaram‚ plastometer were used for testing. Based on the obtained testing results, the values of the yield stress and limiting plasticity of the tested alloy were determined for wide ranges of temperature variation (?=20÷950 °?) and strain rate variation (=0.1÷15.0 s-1) under continuous loading conditions. It was found that by using different testing methods, different alloy properties, characteristic for a given plastic working process, could be obtained.

Open access

K. Laber, H. Dyja, G. Stradomski and A. Kawałek

The paper presents the results of cold upsetting testing of 16.5 mm-diameter 20MnB4 steel wire rod. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of wire rod produced in industrial conditions for further cold metal forming. Due to the fact that cracks occurred in the test material at different strain values, the authors made an attempt to answer the question whether there are any crack initiators in the material structure, or the observed cracks are due to the manufacturing process parameters.

In order to determine the causes of cracks appearing during upsetting tests, micro- and macroscopic observation techniques were used. For the macroscopic examination, an Olympus SZ-31 microscope was used, while a Nikon Ma-200 microscope was employed for the microscopic examination. The microscopic examination was carried out both in a light and dark fields. To evaluate the effect of surface topography on the crack formation tendency, the results of macroscopic observation under a magnification from 6.7x to 45x were used.

Open access

K. Laber, A. Kawałek, S. Sawicki, H. Dyja, J. Borowski, D. Leśniak and H. Jurczak

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the study aimed at determination of plasticity of selected grades of hard-deformed aluminium alloys of 5xxx series in terms of parameters characteristic for the process of extrusion. The examinations were carried out for 5083 and 5754 alloys in the torsion test using STD 812 torsion plastometer. Using the empirical tests, the study evaluated yield stress of alloys depending on strain, strain rate and temperature and the results were approximated and mathematical models of rheological properties of the aluminium grades studied were determined within the range of parameters of deformation and temperature.