In this study, novel polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene (PAN/PS) blend has been prepared and reinforced with carbon nanoparticle to form polyacrylonitrile/polystyrene/carbon nanoparticle (PAN/PS/CNP) nanocomposite foam. Acid-functional carbon nanoparticle (0.1-3 wt.%) was used as nano-reinforcement for PAN/PS blend matrix. 2’-azobisisobutyronitrile was employed as foaming agent. The PAN/PS/CNP nanocomposite foams have been tested for structure, morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability, non-flammability, water uptake, and toxic ion removal. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy exposed unique nanocellular morphology owing to physical interaction between the matrix and functional CNP. PAN/PS/CNP 0.1 Foam with 0.1 wt.% nanofiller had compression strength, modulus, and foam density of 41.8 MPa, 22.3 GPa, and 0.9 mgcm−3, respectively. Nanofiller loading of 3wt.% (PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam) considerably enhanced the compression strength, modulus, and foam density as 68.2 MPa, 37.7 GPa, and 1.9 mgcm−3, respectively. CNP reinforcement also enhanced the initial weight loss and maximum decomposition temperature of PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam to 541 and 574 ºC, relative to neat foam (T0 = 411 ºC; T10 = 459 ºC). Nanocomposite foams have also shown excellent flame retardancy as V-0 rating and high char yield of up to 57% were attained. Due to hydrophilic nature of functional carbon nanoparticle, water absorption capacity of 3 wt.% nanocomposite foam was 30% higher than that of pristine foam. Moreover, novel foams were also tested for the removal of toxic Pb2+ ions. PAN/PS/CNP 3 Foam has shown much higher ion removal capacity (166 mg/g) and efficiency (99 %) than that of PAN/PS foam having removal capacity and efficiency of 90 mg/g and 45 %, respectively.
In this attempt, segmented poly(urethane urea) was prepared from polycaprolactone triol (soft segment), 1,3- bis(isocyanatomethyl)cyclohexane (hard segment) and 4,5-diaminophthalonitrile (chain extender). Acidfunctionalized nano-diamond was used as nano-filler. The nanocomposites were processed using solution casting and melt blending. Unique morphology was observed by SEM due to generation of crosslinked polyurethane and ND network. The s-PUU/ND 10 depicted 6 % increase in tensile strength compared with m-PUU/ND 10. 10 wt. % ND loading via solution route increased conductivity to 0.089 Scm-1 relative to m-PUU/ND 10 (0.057 Scm-1). Electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was enough to show electroactive shape recovery of 95 % (40 V).
Carbon fiber has been used to reinforce both aliphatic and aromatic polyamides. Aliphatic polyamide is known as nylon and aromatic polyamide is often referred to as aramid. Among aliphatic polyamides, polyamide 6, polyamide 6,6, polyamide 11, polyamide 12, and polyamide 1010 have been used as matrices for carbon fiber. Factors affecting the properties of polyamide/carbon fiber composites are: fiber amount, fiber length, fiber orientation, matrix viscosity, matrix-fiber interactions, matrix-fiber adhesion, and conditions encountered during manufacturing processes. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on polyamide/carbon fiber composites. Polyamide/carbon fiber composites are lightweight and exhibit high strength, modulus, fatigue resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, gear, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, and thermal stability. Incorporation of oxidized or modified carbon fiber and nanoparticle modified carbon fiber into polyamide matrices have been found to further enhance their physical properties. Applications of polyamide/carbon fiber composites in aerospace, automobile, construction, and other industries have been stated in this review. To fully exploit potential of polyamide/carbon fiber composites, concentrated future attempts are needed in this field.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been considered as an important commercial synthetic thermoplastic polymer. PVA is a low cost, reasonably processable, optically transmitting, heat stable, and mechanically robust plastic. PVA-based nanomaterials usually comprise of the nanocomposites (PVA/graphene, PVA/carbon nanotube, PVA/nanodiamond, PVA/metal nanoparticle) and nanofibers. The structural, optical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the PVA-based nanomaterials have been enhanced with nanofiller addition or nanostructuring. This review offers fundamentals and advanced aspects of poly(vinyl alcohol) and the derived nanomaterials. It highlights recent advances in PVA nanocomposites and nanofibers for potential applications. The PVA-based nanomaterials have been successfully employed in fuel cells, sensors, batteries, membranes, electronics, and drug delivery relevances. The challenges and opportunities to strengthen the research fields of PVA-based nanomaterials have also been presented.
In this effort, blend membrane of polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPMA) was fabricated via phase inversion technique. The nano-zeolite (NZ) was employed as nanofiller. Morphology of PC/PPMA/NZ membrane revealed unique inter-connected branched microstructure. Tensile strength and Young’s Modulus of PC/PPMA/NZ 0.1-5 were in the range of 59.9-74.5 MPa and 111.4-155.2 MPa respectively. The nano-zeolite filler was also effective in enhancing the permselectivity αCO2/N2 (23.5 to 38.5) relative to blend membrane (20.3). The permeability PCO2 of PC/PPMA/NZ 5 membrane was found as 106.2 Barrer. Filler loading enhanced gas diffusivity, however filler content did not significantly influence CO2 and N2 solubility.
Novel polythioamide (PTA) was prepared and blended with polyamide 1010 (PA1010). Based on morphology, molecular weight, polydispersity index, thermal, and shear stress behavior, PA1010/PTA (90:10) blend was opted as matrix for graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) reinforcement. Inclusion of functional GNP resulted in crumpled gyroid morphology. T0 (502°C) of PA1010/PTA/GNP was increased by 145°C than unfilled blend (357°C). Limiting oxygen index measurement indicated better non-flammability of PA1010/PTA/GNP1-3 nanocomposites (53-55%) relative to PA1010/PTA1-3 (41-48%). PA1010/PTA/GNP1-3 also attained V-0 rating in UL94. Furthermore, PA1010/PTA/GNP3 nanocomposite revealed optimum tensile strength (40 MPa), impact strength (1.9 MPa), and flexural modulus (1373 MPa) to manufacture automotive part.
This study examined effect of inclusion of expanded graphite (Exp-G) on morphology, thermal, mechanical and flame retardant properties of PS, nitro-substituted polystyrene (N-PS) and amino-functional polystyrene (A-PS). FESEM showed exfoliated sheet morphology due to intercalation of N-PS and A-PS in expanded galleries. Tensile strength of A-PS materials (31.5-56.9 MPa) was higher than PS and N-PS. 10 % weight loss of A-PS nanocomposites (482-518 °C) was higher relative to pristine polymer and other nanocomposites. Cone calorimetry results revealed that there was lowering in PHHR of A-PS nanocomposites with 0.5 wt.% filler (428 kW/m2), while PS nanocomposites showed PHHR of 443 kW/m2.