Results of a provenance trial of Acacia nilotica Willd. ex Del. laid out in 1993 at Tropical Forest Research Institute Campus, Jabalpur (23°N lat., 79°E long. and 400 m altitude) Madhya Pradesh, a semi-arid region of India are reported and discussed. Nineteen provenances from India, Pakistan, Sudan, Senegal and Yemen were evaluated in the field at age three and six years. Local source of A. nilotica (S.F.R.I., Jabalpur) was used as check material for comparison. Significant differences between the provenances (P < 0.05) were observed for height, diameter at breast height (DBH), number of branches and field survival. The provenances from Gujrat (Punjab), Pakistan, ranked first for growth traits namely height, DBH and survival. The next superior provenance was from Beihan, Yemen, which scored second highest values of height and DBH and had good survival at age six years. Results indicate that genetic differences exist between the provenances of A.nilotica. None of the traits assessed (viz. height, DBH, number of branches, inter-nodal length and survival) were found to correlate with any of the geographical coordinates of the provenances (latitude, longitude and altitude). Height, DBH and number of branches showed significant and positive correlation with each other. Fair differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability were observed. Heritability values were found fairly good for height, DBH and number of branches as compared to inter-nodal length. The relative performance of these provenances was fairly consistent throughout the period of observation at three and six year. The two sources viz. Gujrat (Punjab), Pakistan and Beihan, Yemen, are recommended for plantation programme under semi-arid conditions.
H. S. Ginwal, Pradip Kumar, V. K. Sharma and A. K. Mandal
Results of a provenance trial of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. laid out in 2001 at Seothi (30° N Lat., 76° E Long. and 250 m altitude) Haryana, a semi-arid region of India are reported and discussed. Six seed sources from Australia viz. Laura River, Emu Creek, Degrey River, Wiluna, Kennedy River, Morehead River were evaluated from nursery stage (3 months) to field performance (2 year). Two sources viz. E.tereticornis (Helenvele, Qld) and FRI-4 a local seed source were used as control (check material). Significant differences between the seed sources at nursery stage were observed for collar diameter (P < 0.05) and number of leaves (P < 0.01). At age 2 years, significant differences between the seed sources (P < 0.05) were observed for height and field survival. The two seed sources viz. Emu Creek Petford, QLD and Laura river, QLD ranked first and second for height and survival at this age. Results indicate that genetic differences exist between the sources of E. camaldulensis. None of the traits assessed (viz. height, collar diameter, number of leaves, number of branches and survival) was found to correlate with any of the geographical coordinates of the site (latitude, longitude and altitude). There were fair differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability. Heritability values were fairly high for height and clear bole length in comparison to collar diameter, number of branches and survival. The relative performance of these provenances was fairly consistent throughout the period of observation. The two sources viz. Laura river, QLD and Emu Creek Petford, QLD are recommended for potential source for plantation programme under semi-arid conditions.
In a provenance cum progeny trial comprising 13 provenances and 91 families of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. of Australian and Papua New Guinean (PNG) origin, laid out in India in 2002, cleistogamy was found in a family emanating from CSIRO seed lot no. 13418, (tree no. DS000141) Sirinumu Sogeri Plat, PNG. This trait appears to be under genetic control, and presumably results in obligate selfing. This may lead to inbreeding depression in this family.
Inheritance pattern of wood traits, especially heartwood/ sapwood percentage and specific gravity and interactions of wood traits with other growth traits were investigated in a 27-year-old half-sib progeny trial of teak. Wood traits showed highly significant variation for specific gravity, heartwood and sapwood percentage at family level. There was non-significant family vs. replication variation for these traits. Among the growth traits, there was significant variation for height and girth. Families and individual trees showed varying levels of heritability. Among the growth traits, height showed high heritability (individual tree heritability, h2 (i) = 34.3%; family heritability, h2 (f ) = 34.1%) followed by girth (h2 (i) = 19.4%; h2 (f ) = 31.4%). Among the wood traits, maximum heritability values were obtained for sapwood percentage (h2 (i) = 76.6%; h2 (f ) = 70.7%) and heartwood percentage (h2 (i) = 76.9%; h2 (f ) = 69.7%). Specific gravity exhibited heritability values of 29.1 and 41.8%, at individual tree and family level, respectively. Family heritability was higher than single-tree heritability for specific gravity; single-tree heritability exceeded family heritability for heartwood percentage. Specific gravity exhibited significant positive genotypic correlation with heartwood percentage suggesting that improvement in heartwood percentage would lead to a correlated improvement in specific gravity. Heartwood percentage showed significant positive correlation with growth traits viz., height and girth. Some of the families showed good GCA for growth and wood traits investigated. The good general combiners identified in the present study can be used for establishment of advanced generation seed orchards and breeding arboreta for improvement of teak for specific or combination of above traits.
H. S. Ginwal, Pradip Kumar, V. K. Sharma, A. K. Mandal and C. E. Harwood
Results of provenance cum progeny trials of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. laid out in 2002 at three sites viz. FRI Campus (Uttaranchal), Chiryanpur (Uttaranchal) and Midnapore (West Bengal) located in tropical region of India are reported and discussed. Thirteen provenances representing 91 families from Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) viz. Oro bay to Emo, PNG; Sirinumu Sogeri Plat, PNG; Warwick, QLD; Yurammie, SF, NSW; Buckenbowra SF, NSW; Selection flat SF559, NSW; Credition SF, QLD; Cardwell, QLD; Mitchell River MT Molloy, QLD; Mill stream archer creek, QLD; Helenvale, QLD; Walsh River, QLD; Burdekin River, QLD were evaluated from nursery stage to field performance (age 21months). As a local seed source open-pollinated seeds collected from selected interspecific Eucalyptus F1 hybrid trees of FRI-4, FRI-5 and Mysore gum (Eucalyptus teretirornis) were used to serve as check material (control). Significant differences between the provenances and families at age 21 months were observed for height, clean stem length, collar diameter and field survival. Significant provenance x site interaction was observed for height. In general the north Queensland provenances performed better and in particular two provenances viz. Walsh River, QLD and Burdekin River, QLD ranked the best in comparison to others at this age. Results indicate that significant genetic differences exist between the families and provenances of E. tereticornis. The growth traits were inter-correlated with each other. Geographic clinal variation pattern was observed in some of the growth traits viz. height, clean stem height and collar diameter. There were fair differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability. Heritability (narrow sense) values were fairly good for height and clear stem length in comparison to collar diameter. The relative performance of the provenances was fairly consistent throughout test sites.
B. Nagarajan, A. Nicodemus, V. Sivakumar, A. K. Mandal, G. Kumaravelu, R. S. C. Jayaraj, V. Narmatha Bai and R. Kamalakannan
Studies on phenology, floral biology and seed production were conducted in two provenance trials and a clonal hedge orchard of C. equisetifolia. Observations in seventeen populations indicate that predominant dioecy with low proportion of monoecy as the commonest sexual strategy. Flowering occurs twice in a year coinciding with the South West and North East monsoons. C. equisetifolia exhibits strong anemophilous adaptations such as very high pollen output, reduced flowers with large stigmatic area and light weighing winged fruits. Pollen is viable up to 99%, storable in 4°C up to three months with no loss in fertility. Trees start reproducing within two years of planting. Local land races produce ten to twenty times higher seeds than the recent introduced natural provenances and exotic landraces. Controlled pollination resulted in lower seed set than observed in open pollination. Selfing leads to normal seed set in monoecious trees. Inter specific cross with C. junguhuhniana pollen parent results in viable progeny.