Foliar sprays application is an important crop management strategy, which could help to maximize yield and other beneficial substances. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at Kafrelsheikh University research farm, Egypt, to study the effect of stimulating compounds (control, salicylic acid and ascobien) and nitrogen levels (0, 57.5, 115, 172.5 and 230 kg N ha-1) on yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of wheat. Results indicated that spraying of ascobien and increasing nitrogen level had significant effect on yield traits. Interaction between stimulating compounds and nitrogen were achieved progressive increases in all yield traits, furthermore, the magnitude of increments was much more pronounced in response to salicylic acid and control treatments in both seasons. It was observed no statistically significant difference between 172.5 and 230 kg N ha-1 in both seasons. A significant interactive effect were observed on grain N uptake, whole plant N uptake, nitrogen harvest index (NHI), nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by using foliar spraying combined with N fertilizer. Grain N uptake and whole plant N uptake were closely correlated with nitrogen under stimulating compounds, whereas ascobien with 172.5 kg N ha-1 was more effective than salicylic acid in both seasons. Interestingly, foliar spraying of ascobien and N level of 172.5 kg ha-1 was the optimal and could be a useful to improve the efficiency of N-fertilizer and it can be saved 57.5 kg N ha-1. Consequently, could be the key to reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease the cost of production.
Rice is the most important food crop for the developing world. Hence, identifying rice genotypes to drought tolerance for using as donors in breeding is one of the most important challenges for rice research. Therefore, Molecular markers are useful tools to determine genetic diversity and identifying rice genotypes to drought tolerance. In the present study, A number of 41 rice genotypes with different drought tolerance from different geographic locations were evaluated for genetic diversity by using 15 SSR markers. A total of 68 alleles were detected of which 61(89.79%) were polymorphic. The number of alleles detected by a single marker varied from 2 to 8 alleles with an average of 4.71 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.07 (RM219) to 0.80 (RM263) with an average of 0.52. Genetic similarity coefficients of pair wise comparisons were estimated on the basis of the polymorphic microsatelite loci ranged from 0.23 to 0.91 indicating a wide range of genetic variation present among the studied genotypes. It was determined that the primers RM20A, RM302, RM212 and RM286 could be useful for selecting drought tolerant lines through MAS approach. The most significant application of these identified major QTLs for drought tolerance is to collect those favorable alleles into elite local line through marker assisted breeding. The results indicated the ability of SSR markers to identify the allelic diversity and genetic variation among the studied rice genotypes. These results recommended for using this material in future breeding programs to provide important source of genetic diversity for drought tolerance in rice.
Six parents, i.e. Gemmeiza 9, Sids 12, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sids 1 and Sham 4, were used and evaluated with corresponding 15 F2 crosses. The parents in each cross were significantly different for most of these characters, revealing the different genetic background of the parents involved. The phenotypic variances in the F2 crosses were differed significantly from the environmental variances in the corresponding parents in most cases. The parents Gemmeiza 9, Sids 12, Misr 1, Misr 2 were resistant for leaf rust and Gemmeiza 9, Sids 12 and Sids 1 were resistant to stem rust. Among the crosses, three crosses, i.e. Misr 2 x Sids 1, Misr 1 x Sids 1 and Gemmeiza 9 x Sids 1 gave the highest grain yield. The means of F2 hybrids were higher than the means of the parents for most studied characters. The ranges of the F2 values went out the ranges of the two parents in most cases, exhibiting transgressive segregation. Most characters showed moderate to high values of broad sense heritabilities. The studied plants in the F2 ‘s crosses segregated and gave ratios fitted the ratios 9:7, 9:7, 3:1, 1:3, 13:3 and 3:13 for leaf rust and 9:7, 7: 9, 3:1, 1:3, 3:13 and 1:15 for stem rust with insignificant χ2 values, indicating that the resistant parents for leaf and stem rusts had one or two genes and were complimentary dominance, recessive or independent in their expressions. Based on the resistance to leaf and stem rusts, suitable plant height (90-110 cm) and grain yield higher than the highest parent, 8-17 plants were selected from seven crosses.
The purpose of this study was to identify the optimum levels of gibberellic acid and suitable row ratio for maximization the seed yield of hybrid rice. An experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Rice Research and Training Center, Egypt, during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The material under this study included the parental lines of IR69625A (Female lines) and Giza 179 R (Restorer line) to produce F0 hybrid seeds. A split-plot design with three replications was used. The main plot was row ratio (2R:8A, 2R:10A and 2R:12A) and sub plots was the doses of gibberellic acid (g/ha) (control, 300, 350, 400). The results indicated that, Application of GA3 and row ratio had significant effect on different traits of seed yield and hybrid seed production. The highest values of flag leaf area, panicle length, seed set, panicle weight, panicle exsertion and seed yield were acheived by using 2R: 8A row ratio and was observed the lowest values were obtained at the 2:12 row ratio. Acoording to gibberellic acid application, the highest values for panicle length (cm), seed set (%), panicle weight (g), panicle exertion (%), harvest index and seed yield were recorded by using 400 g /ha gibberellic acid. Accordingly, the highest net economic return from seed yield was obtained with the treatment combination of 400 g/ha GA3 x 2:8 (R: A) row ratio.
The present research was conducted to study the influence of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients as well as antioxidant on rice quality. The experiment was designed in split-split plots with four replications, where main plots were assigned to nitrogen (0, 55, 110 and 165 kg N ha−1) and sub plots were allocated to compost (0, 3.5 and 7 tons ha−1), while the sub-sub plots were assigned to ascobien (control, spraying with ascobien in two times at 15 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT), spraying with ascobien three times at 15, 30 and 45 DAT). The result indicated that grain quality traits were significantly influenced by the organic and inorganic fertilizers, and ascobien. The percentage of hulling, milling and amylose were positively and significantly influenced by nitrogen, organic and antioxidants application. Most of studied characters produced the highest values with the organic fertilize were combined with nitrogen and antioxidants. Application of 110 kg N ha−1, 7 t ha−1 compost and two or three spraying of ascobien, 110 kg N ha−1 or 3.5 t ha−1 compost and three times spraying and 55 kg N ha−1, 7 t ha−1 compost and two times spraying could be recommended for optimum grain quality of Sakha106 rice variety. It can be concluded that compost along with the foliar application of ascobien can be saved from 50 to110 kg N ha−1, without reducing grain quality. It can be the key to reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease the cost of production with keeping healthy soil.
A laboratory test was carried out to examine the influence of various storage containers and periods on the germination percentage of black gram seed. In this research, three seed containers, viz. sealed tin container, poly bag and gunny bag were used to store the seeds, as well as seeds were stored for three different storage periods, viz. 15, 30 and 45 days and thereby conducted germination tests. The results revealed that storage and storage periods considerably influenced the germination percentage (GP) of black gram seed. The highest GP of 87.73% was found in the seeds stored at sealed tin container, while the lowest GP (71.08%) was observed in the seeds stored in gunny bag. Among the three storage containers, the GP reduced rapidly in the seeds stored in gunny bags (6.52%), followed by poly bag (18.98%). The maximum values of GP (85.43%) of black gram seed were recorded when 15 days after storage (DAS), whereas the lowest GP (68.33%) was at 45 DAS, and the GP decreased noticeably with the increase of storage periods from 15 to 30 and to 45 DAS. In combination influence of storage containers and storage periods, the maximum GP (85.90%) was recorded at when seeds kept in sealed tin container with stored for the shortest duration (15 DAS), while the minimum (58.11%) was recorded in the seeds stored in gunny bag for the longest period with 45 DAS. Seeds stored in the sealed tin containers exhibited an excellent performance regarding GP with the shortest storage periods and, thereby, black gram should be kept in sealed tin containers or like this air tight containers for storage, as well as seeds should be sun dried after a short period for maintaining seed quality.
A laboratory experiment was conducted at the Department of Agronomy, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dianjpur-5200, Bangladesh to evaluate the storage containers and duration of seed storage on the germinability and health of wheat seeds. The experiment was carried out in two factors, viz. three storage containers naming i) sealed tin container, ii) plastic container, iii) gunny bag, and four storage periods of i) 15 days, ii) 30 days, iii) 45 days, and iv) 60 days. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in this experiment with eight replications. The results revealed that the germination percentages (GP) of the seeds stored in the gunny bag decreased quickly from 66.1 to 32.8% due to contained with high moisture content in seed. But, slowly decreasing trends of GP from 80.4% to 69.2% was observed in the sealed tin container seeds with lesser moisture content than that of gunny bag and plastic container. The reduction of GP was so higher of 50.38% in the seeds contained in gunny bag than that of only 13.93% in the seeds contained sealed tin container. Wheat seeds stored in sealed tin container, plastic container and gunny bag significantly increased moisture content in ambient condition for 60 DAS. The moisture content of the seeds stored in gunny bag was found to rise remarkably more than other containers. This escalation of seed moisture content was closely related to the surrounding environmental conditions, like temperature and relative humidity where seeds were stored. The rate seed deterioration in gunny bag and plastic container paralleled the level of invasion by storage insect was found. During storage period, insect infected the seeds, and the insect bitten seeds were also found higher in gunny bag and plastic container, but lower in sealed container. Wheat seeds should be stored in air tight sealed container and drying should be done after some days of storage (45-60 DAS).
A laboratory experiment regarding germination and seedling growth test was conducted with three black gram genotypes tested under three salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM), for 10 days, in sand culture within small plastic pot, to investigate the germination and seedling growth characteristics. Different germination traits of all black gram genotypes, like germination percentage (GP), germination rate (GR), coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) greatly reduced, as well as mean germination time (MGT) increased with increasing salt stress. At high salt stress, BARI Mash-3 provided the highest GP reduction (28.58%), while the lowest was recorded (15.79% to control) in BARI Mash-1. Salinity have the negative impact on shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights. The highest (50.32% to control) and lowest reduction (36.39%) of shoot length were recorded in BARI Mash-2 and BARI Mash-1, respectively, under 150 mM NaCl saline conditions. There were significant reduction of root lengths, root fresh and dry weight, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight in all genotypes under saline condition. The genotypes were arranged as BARI Mash-1 > BARI Mash-3 > BARI Mash-2, with respect to salinity tolerance.
Fruits and vegetables are important sources of nutrients for mankind. Among the various fruits available in Bangladesh, mango occupies a vital place in the human nutrition for its delicious taste and higher nutritious value. In this study, five mango varieties, viz. Fazli, Amrupali, Langra, Gopalbogh and Misribogh, were tested to evaluate the quality of these mango varieties available in Northern Bangladesh. Physiochemical characteristics, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total solids, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total sugars and ascorbic acid contents were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant (p< 0.05) differences among mangoes of all varieties for physicochemical parameters. In case of proximate composition, the mango variety Amrupali showed the highest ash content (2.34±0.15) and fat content (1.18±0.13). Protein content (0.94±0.12) and total fiber (2.67%) content was shown to be the highest by Gopalbogh and Misribogh, respectively. The selected mango varieties contained TSS of 12.87~20.55oBrix, pH of 4.45~4.67, titrable acidity of 0.07~0.42%, reducing sugar of 8.40~15.43%, non-reducing sugar of 9.24~10.48%, and total sugarof 18.88~25.12%. The study findings would be helpful for the consumers, dietitian and industry policymakers.