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A. Cias and A. Czarski

Abstract

Low carbon ferro-manganese and graphite powders were admixed to Hoganas sponge, NC100.24, and water atomised, ABC 100.30 and ASC 100.29, iron powders - to produce three variants of sintered Fe-3Mn-0.8C steel. These were pressed into tensile and bend specimens at 660 MPa, sintered in semi-closed containers for 1 hour in dry nitrogen or hydrogen at 1120 or 1250°C and cooled at 64°C/min. Both tensile strength and transverse rupture strength were examined using Weibull statistics. This paper presents the results of a study to develop and evaluate goodness of fit tests for the two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. The study was initiated because of discrepancies in published critical values for two-parameter Weibull distribution goodness of fit tests and the lack of general three-parameter Weibull distribution goodness of fit tests for properties of PM steels.

Open access

P. Matusiewicz and A. Czarski

The particles arrangement in material space is represented by point field determined by the particle reference points, i.e., particle centers which can be described by the pair-correlation function (PCF) g3(r); r - correlation distance. Information about g3(r) can be obtained by stereological method based on the PCF g2(r), which describes the point field on the planar section determined by the centers of particle planar sections. In this paper the arrangement of cementite (Fe3C) particles during coarsening in Fe - 0,67%C steel at 715ºC in a form of two materials (A, B) of different microstructure of the coarse spheroidite (with different matrix grain size and particles position) was investigated. In material A, the particles are mainly at grain (subgrain) boundaries of fine-grained matrix. In material B, particles are mainly inside grains of coarse-grained ferrite. For material A, the empirical PCF g2(r) for a long time of coarsening (600 hours) is shifted towards larger r and is more flat near the g2(r) =1 than the one of coarsening for 50 hours. For material B, the g2(r) for both annealing times are not significantly different. This is consistent with the results of the probability density function f2(d) analysis for diameter (d) of the particle sections. Obtained PCF g2(r) are similar to the PCF g2(r) for planar section of the Stienen model. This means that for both type of microstructures the PCF - g3(r) =1, i.e., particles are distributed randomly in space and the sizes of the neighboring particles are correlated with each other.

Open access

A. Czarski, T. Skowronek and P. Matusiewicz

A lamellar microstructure is, beside a granular and dispersive one, the most frequently observed microstructure in the case of metal alloys. The most well-known lamellar microstructure is pearlite, a product of a eutectoidal transformation in the Fe-Fe3C system. The lamellar morphology of pearlite - cementite and ferrite lamellae placed interchangeably within one structural unit described as a colony - is dominant. The durability of the lamellar morphology is much diversified: in the microstructure of spheroidizingly annealed samples, one can observe areas in which the cementite is thoroughly spheroidized, next to very well-preserved cementite lamellae or even whole colonies of lamellar pearlite. The mentioned situation is observed even after long annealing times. The causes of such behaviour can vary. The subject of the previous work of the authors was the effect of the orientation between the ferrite and the cementite on the stability of the lamellar morphology. This work constitutes a continuation of the mentioned paper and it concerns the effect of the true interlamellar spacing on the stability of the lamellar morphology of cementite.

Open access

M. Sułowski, A. Jordan, A. Czarski and P. Matusiewicz

Abstract

The object of the study was to assess the influence of selected production parameters of sintered Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C steels i.e. chemical composition, sintering temperature, sintering atmosphere and heat treatment on the following mechanical properties: impact toughness, hardness of the surface, tensile strength, bend strength after static tensile tests.

In the investigations, the general linear model (GLM) of the multivariate analysis of variance ANOVA was used. All assumptions of ANOVA, i.e. randomization of the experiment, the normality of the residuals, equality of variance at different levels have been fulfilled and verified. The predictive strength of the constructed models expressed by the adjusted determination coefficient (R2 adj) is at medium or large level – R2 adj is in the range from 41.46% to 76.97%. This work is focused mainly on the ANOVA methodology. A wide physical interpretation of the results will be possible after the optimization of the ANOVA models used.

Open access

Ch. Fiał, A. Ciaś, A. Czarski and M. Sułowski

Abstract

A statistical analysis is presented of tensile and bending strengths of a porous sintered structural steel which exhibits non-linear, quasi-brittle, behaviour. It is the result of existing natural flaws (pores and oxide inclusions) and of the formation of fresh flaws when stress is applied. The analysis is by two- and three-parameter Weibull statistics. Weibull modulus, a measure of reliability, was estimated by the maximum likelihood method for specimen populations < 30. Probability distributions were compared on the basis of goodness to fit using the Anderson-Darling tests. The use of the two-parameter Weibull distribution for strength data of quasi-brittle sintered steels is questioned, because there is sufficient evidence that the 3-parameter distribution fits the data better.

Open access

P. Matusiewicz, J. Augustyn-Nadzieja, A. Czarski and T. Skowronek

Abstract

The pearlite spheroidization in Fe-0.76%C high purity steel was investigated. The samples of a coarse pearlite microstructure were isothermal annealed at 700, 680, 660, 640 and 620°C for various times, up to 800 hours. For quantitative description of the spheroidization process stereological parameter, SV (ferrite/cementite interface surface density) was used. The activation energy 104.8±11.4 kJ/mol was found for the spheroidization process. This value shows good agreement with the activation energy for iron and carbon diffusion along a ferrite/cementite interface, so the coupled interface diffusion is the rule-controlling process.