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Open access

D. Gurgul, A. Burbelko and T. Wiktor

Abstract

The paper presents validation tests for method which is used for the evaluation of the statistical distribution parameters for 3D particles’ diameters. The tested method, as source data, uses chord sets which are registered from a random cutting plane placed inside a sample space. In the sample space, there were individually generated three sets containing 3D virtual spheres. Each set had different Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF3) of the sphere diameters, namely: constant radius, normal distribution and bimodal distribution as a superposition of two normal distributions. It has been shown that having only a chord set it is possible, by using the tested method, to calculate the mean value of the outer sphere areas. For the sets of data, a chord method generates quite large errors for around 10% of the smallest nodules in the analysed population. With the increase of the nodule radii, the estimation errors decrease. The tested method may be applied to foundry issues e.g. for the estimation of gas pore sizes in castings or for the estimation of nodule graphite sizes in ductile cast iron.

Open access

M. Wróbel, A. Burbelko and D. Gurgul

Density change occurring in ductile iron castings is a phenomenon far more complicated than in other casting alloys. Initially, graphite nodules grow directly from liquid phase. That is the reason for decrease in alloy density and casting expansion. Decaying carbon concentration in liquid phase adjacent to graphite nodules favours growth of austenite, which covers them isolating from the liquid. In order for graphite to grow further diffusion of carbon through thickening solid solution layer is needed. At this time expansion fades and shrinkage begins. Industrial experience shows that whether or not shrinkage defects in ductile iron castings will occur depends on wall thickness.

In the paper an attempt to identify mechanism of shrinkage porosity formation in nodular iron castings during solidification was made. To that end a two-dimension simulation of binary Fe-C system solidification by cellular automaton method was carried out. Using data obtained with Thermo-CALC software, dependencies of temperature on density for each present phase were determined. For liquid phase and austenite influence of carbon concentration on density was also appended. Applying those relationships to the model, density of each individual cell of used grid as well as mean value for whole analysed region were assessed. The method allowed to consider volume fractions of phases and heterogeneity of solid and liquid solutions to find the mean density of the material.

The paper presents results of computer simulation of nodular iron density change, with eutectic saturation of 0,9 to 1,1.

Open access

A.A. Burbelko, J. Początek and M. Królikowski

Abstract

The study presents a mathematical model of the crystallisation of nodular graphite cast iron. The proposed model is based on micro- and macromodels, in which heat flow is analysed at the macro level, while micro level is used for modelling of the diffusion of elements. The use of elementary diffusion field in the shape of an averaged Voronoi polyhedron [AVP] was proposed. To determine the geometry of the averaged Voronoi polyhedron, Kolmogorov statistical theory of crystallisation was applied. The principles of a differential mathematical formulation of this problem were discussed. Application of AVP geometry allows taking into account the reduced volume fraction of the peripheral areas of equiaxial grains by random contacts between adjacent grains. As a result of the simulation, the cooling curves were plotted, and the movement of "graphite-austenite" and "austenite-liquid” phase boundaries was examined. Data on the microsegregation of carbon in the cross-section of an austenite layer in eutectic grains were obtained. Calculations were performed for different particle densities and different wall thicknesses. The calculation results were compared with experimental data.

Open access

A.A. Burbelko, D. Gurgul, M. Królikowski and M. Wróbel

Abstract

Formation of the shrinkage defects in ductile iron castings is far more complicated phenomenon than in other casting alloys. In the paper one of the aspects of formation of porosity in this alloy was considered - changes in cast iron's density during crystallization caused by varying temperature, phase fractions and phase's composition. Computer model, using cellular automata method, for determination of changes in density of ductile iron during crystallization was applied. Simulation of solidification was conducted for 5 Fe-C binarie alloys with ES from 0.9 to 1.1 for the estimation of the eutectic saturation influence on the ductile iron shrinkage and expansion. As a result of calculations it was stated that after undercooling ductile iron below liquidus temperature volumetric changes proceed in three stages: preeutectic shrinkage (minimal in eutectic cast iron), eutectic expansion (maximum value equals to about 1.5% for ES = 1.05) and last shrinkage (about 0.4% in all alloys regardless of ES).

Open access

A.A. Burbelko, D. Gurgul, W. Kapturkiewicz and M. Górny

Abstract

The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1) on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains) and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.

Open access

A. Burbelko, D. Gurgul, E. Guzik and W. Kapturkiewicz

Abstract

Volume changes of the binary Fe-C alloy with nodular graphite were forecast by means of the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) model of solidification. Simulations were performed in 2D space for differing carbon content. Dependences of phase density on temperature were considered in the computations; additionally density of the liquid phase and austenite were deemed as a function of carbon concentration. Changes of the specific volume were forecast on the base of the phase volume fractions and changes of phase density. Density of modeled material was calculated as weighted average of densities of each phase.

Open access

R. Dańko, J. Dańko, A. Burbelko and M. Skrzyński

Abstract

The effects of filling the core box cavity and sand compaction in processes of core production by blowing methods (blowing, shooting) depend on several main factors. The most important are: geometrical parameters of cavity and complexity of its shape, number, distribution and shape of blowing holes feeding sands as well as the venting of a technological cavity. Values of individual parameters are selected according to various criteria, but mostly they should be adjusted to properties of the applied core sand. Various methods developed by several researchers, including the authors own attempts, allow to assess core sands properties on the basis of special technological tests projecting the process into a laboratory scale. The developed criteria defining a degree or a filling ability factor provide a better possibility of assessing the core sand behavior during flowing and core box filling, which indicate the value and structure of the obtained compacting decisive - after hardening - for strength and permeability. The mentioned above aspects are analyzed - on the basis of authors’ own examinations - in the hereby paper.

Open access

A. Burbelko, J. Falkus, W. Kapturkiewicz, K. Sołek, P. Drożdż and M. WróbeL

Modeling of the Grain Structure Formation in the Steel Continuous Ingot by Cafe Method

Computer modeling of a temperature field and a solid phase fraction in casted billets is the base of any numerical simulation of the continuous casting technology. Temperature distribution in an ingot longitudinal and cross section for the same technological parameters is a function of solidification rate and rate of the solidification heat release. Nucleation rate and solid grain growth velocity depend on a melt undercooling below the liquidus temperature, and consequently depend on a temperature value. The results of the primary grain growth and temperature distribution modeling are presented for the square steel continuous casting 160×160 mm produced by CELSA Steel Works in Ostrowiec. For the modeling the ProCAST® software was used. Virtual structure of primary grains in the continuous ingot cross section was compared with a structure of a real ingot.

Open access

J. Danko, R. Dańko, A. Burbelko and M. Skrzyński

Abstract

Theoretical problems concerning the determination of work parameters of the two-phase sand-air stream in the cores making process by blowing methods as well as experimental methods of determination of the main and auxiliary parameters of this process decisive on the cores quality assessed by the value and distribution of their apparent density are presented in the paper. In addition the results of visualisations of the core-box filling with the sand-air stream, from the blowing chamber, obtained by the process filming by means of the quick-action camera are presented in the paper and compared with the results of simulation calculations with the application of the ProCast software.