Search Results

1 - 3 of 3 items

  • Author: A. B. Chaplygina x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815), have more opportunities to accumulate heavy metals due to migration but they are more resistant to contamination in contrast to tits, (Parus major Linnaeus, 1758, Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758). This research aimed to detect concentrations of some trace elements in eggs of the collared flycatcher, great tit and blue tit in different areas. There were found differences in heavy metal concentrations in the eggs among species and study areas. For collared flycatchers there were not established consistent patterns of changes in element concentrations among areas. The highest heavy metal levels were found in tits in samples of egg contents from a forest park (Pb - 3.1410 ± 0.3249, Cu - 19.3290 ± 1.4840, Zn - 66.9612 ± 17.6665, Fe - 249.5513 ± 40.2800, Mn - 6.9032 ± 0.2946, Ca - 8298.3570 ± 0.1080, Sr - 17.6032 ± 0.7512, Ni - 0.5177 ± 0.0220). The lowest concentrations were found in egg contents of tits in Hetmanskyi National Nature Park (Cu - 4.3492 ± 0.2079, Fe - 44.6647 ± 0.2627, Mn - 1.3194 ± 0.2374, Ca - 998.7001 ± 0.0006, Ni - 0.2443 ± 0.0439, Cr - 0.1466 ± 0.0424). The results indicate that heavy metals accumulated differently in shells and contents of eggs of collared flycatchers and tits in each of the study area. Some of microelements (zinc, mercury, iron, manganese, selenium and iodine) in small amounts are required for normal growth and development of birds. Heavy metal concentrations in egg shells and egg contents of all species did not exceed permissible levels.

Abstract

The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata) have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %), Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %), Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %), Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753), and also by sedges (Carex sp.) and grasses (Poaceae). The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species) and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species). The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %), in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 %) dominates) and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %), Malacostraca (5.3 %) and Diplopoda (1.9 %). The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %); the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %), saprophages (18.7 %), and necrophages (15.6 %) was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %), followed by zoophages (34 %), saprophages (12 %), and necrophages (3 %). The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443), whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species). In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in food items - 62.3 % (N = 164), but the number of phyto-, zoo- and saprophage species was equal (30.8 %, 13 species). In the forest park, zoophages were more frequent - 45.5 % (N = 110), but phytophages were the most species-rich (42.9 %).

Abstract

The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753), and also by sedges (Carex sp.) and grasses (Poaceae), connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families), with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %). The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species) was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %). The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each), then followed necrophages (12 %). Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150), the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %), saprophages (18 %), and necrophages (6 %). The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””).