This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in cattle and sheep in the province of Kars, Turkey. Serum samples from 500 cattle and 540 sheep, collected from 15 randomly selected localities (villages) in the region, were tested for the presence of anti-F. hepatica antibodies using an in-house ELISA test with 98 % sensitivity and 96 % specificity. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in the district was determined to be 66.6 % (333/500) in cattle and 93 % (502/540) in sheep. There was also a statistically significant difference in the rates of seropositivity between villages (each of which could be considered to be a large herd or flock), ranging from 0 % to 100 % in cattle and from 68 % to 100 % in sheep, P < 0.01). These findings show that F. hepatica infection is very common in the region; that, in contrast to results from abattoir which indicate a level of only 10 % prevalence, the exposure of farm animals to the infection in the region is in fact very high; and that the risk of acquiring the infection varies between the localities and the host species tested within the region.
A Demiray, A Yaren, N Karagenç, F Bir, AG Demiray, ER Karagür, O Tokgün, L Elmas and H Akça
In this study, profiles of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten ras sarcoma (KRAS) mutations and response to erlotinib therapy have been investigated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DNA from 300 patients with NSCLC was extracted from paraf-fin-embedded tissues. After the extracted DNA was sequenced by pyrosequencing method, a total of 97 (32.0%) patients out of 300 were detected to carry an EGFR mutation and 75 (25.0%) patients out of 300 carried a KRAS mutation; 20 (6.6%) patients were detected to carry both of EGFR and KRAS mutations. The EGFR mutations were found to be statistically significant in female patients (48.0 women vs. 28.0% men, non smokers (49.0 vs. 26.0%) and adenocarcinoma (37.8 vs. squamous 26.8%). The overall rate of survival in patients receiving erlotinib therapy than in patients who did not. In patients without the KRAS mutation, the median overall survival rate was 161 ± 30 weeks with erlotinib therapy and 90 ± 13 weeks in patients without erlotinib therapy. In patients having KRAS mutation, the median overall survival was 98 ± 16 weeks with erlotinib therapy and 34 ± 16 weeks with no erlotinib therapy. In our study, we once again demonstrated that the presence of these mutations affected response to erlotinib therapy. The KRAS mutations negatively affected survival rate with and without erlotinib therapy.