The material proposes a generalised model for the development of underwater technology, understood as a technical means of penetrating and exploring the depths of the oceans. The model was developed on the basis of the previously proposed bifurcation model. The basis and starting point for the development of the model was the analysis of literature. The proposed model indicates that regardless of which technical solution for underwater penetration was developed in the past, it will belong to one of the three defined developmental ‘streams’ of this technique. Since the proposed model has the characteristic of a flowing stream and is more general than the bifurcation model, its name has been proposed as a generalised amnistic developmental model of the underwater technique.
The purpose of this article is to present selected threats that may affect the security of IT systems caused by cyberattacks coming from cyberspace, as well as to prescribe the results that could be caused by the failure to implement security measures to protect information system (IS).
The material presents an analysis of the impact that the parameters of air hyperbaric exposure have on the time remaining to the beginning of the first ventilation, as calculated with two mathematical models. The research has been conducted in the form of simulations that take into account standard parameters of exposure. Differences between the analysed models have been indicated, and the influence of the changes of particular input values in the analysed models on the output values has been defined.
This material is a continuation of the article published in the PHR no. 3(52)2015 concerning the methodology of selecting underwater exploration strategies for process development purposes. The article proposes to use one of the methods of decision optimization for the selection of the appropriate course of action in such cases.
The article constitutes an attempt to identify current tendencies regarding the development of unmanned marine technologies such as unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. The analyses were performed on the basis of available literature, databases on research projects and internet sources. The material has been divided with regard to the location the research was conducted, the following groups being identified: the European Union, the United States of America and Poland. On the basis of the review of objectives and final effects of projects, tendencies in the development of the discussed marine technology have been identified. An interesting result of the review consists in an observation that Polish R&D works in this area are placed within the main identified developmental trends. Unfortunately, their effects are incomparable due to the minuteness of national funds allocated to R&D as opposed to other countries.
The paper analyzes possible policy and institutional responses to underconsumption, which is viewed as an effect of a specific market failure. Microeconomic rational decisions to keep labor costs low, resulting in suboptimal macroeconomic outcomes. Traditionally, constraints arising out of deficient demand have been corrected with expansionary fiscal and monetary policies. These methods have ceased to be effective and viable. Alternative measures should be targeted at changing income distribution; low labor income is the reason for underconsumption. Such measures (progressive income tax, stronger labor unions) would probably not gain any acceptance of entrepreneurs, even though, in principle, they should boost business activity. Non-confrontational solutions are beyond the reach of economic policy but an informed democratic debate might lead to a desirable compromise.
Foliicolous lichens are an important component of lowland tropical forests and are useful bioindicators of vegetation continuity or forest health. This study of these fungi in lowland Bolivian Amazon forests of Pando Department revealed the presence of 180 species, 101 of which are reported as new for Bolivia. The following 15 species are mentioned for the first time from South America: Anisomeridium guttuliferum Lücking, Byssolecania pluriseptata Breuss, Caprettia confusa Lücking & Sipman, Chroodiscus submuralis Lücking, Coenogonium barbatum Lücking, Aptroot & L. Umaña-Tenorio, Echinoplaca tetrapla (Zahlbr.) Lücking, Gyalectidium laciniatum Lücking, G. pallidum Herrera-Campos & Lücking, Mazosia conica Sérus., Phylloblastia excavata P. M. McCarthy, Porina conica R. Sant., Porina subnucula Lücking & Vězda, Porina aff. subpallescens Vězda, Strigula minuta Lücking and Trichothelium intermedium Lücking. The up-to-date list of foliicolous lichens of Bolivia now numbers 218 species, 52% more than known previously. The foliicolous lichen biota of Pando, a substantial part of the Bolivian Amazon, has clear affinities to neighboring countries due to the significant proportion of species typical for lowland and submontane humid forests in the Neotropics. Analyses of the lichen diversity in the area suggest that its species composition is positively correlated with the presence of specific forest types.
This article seeks to present how the manner of recording the spatial phenomena analysed by Henri Lefebvre in his numerous publications can serve as a basis for reflections on the suitability of his theories for the description of the creative class in a modern city. Because Lefebvre pursued a number of lines of thought in his philosophical ideas, we can state that there is a strong correlation between the city image he created and preferences of the creative class in a modern city. The article is also intended to make the reader realise that records of philosophical ideas can, in many instances, contribute to the improvement of the actual space in a city.
Roman Imperial Roads (highways) built, maintained and organized by the Roman army and provincial authorities were studied in the Golan Heights since Schumacher’s surveys in the 1880s. However, most of these were obliterated by building and agricultural activity since the beginning of the 20th century. Local ancient road system, linking individual communities and their agricultural land was never studied, since it barely leaves a trace in archaeological record. This paper presents reconstruction of inter-provincial highways passing through the southern Golan Heights, and local road system in GIS using cumulative focal mobility network (CFMN) analysis. The CFMN provides outline of natural corridors of movement in the region. From CFMN it is possible to extract path with higher mobility potential which will be tested against present evidence for Roman Imperial Highways, since it is assumed that corridors with high mobility potential would be suitable place for construction of (inter-)provincial road. Path with lower mobility potential might indicate local road system, so it would be possible to connect agricultural communities with the land they exploited; which in turn may have implications for site prediction and site-catchment analysis exploring quotidian movement of people and goods in the landscape. Two case studies in this respect are presented: the city of Hippos and settlement of es-Safuriyye.
The paper presents comparison of results of impulse response spectral analysis that has been obtained using a method based on cross-correlation with results obtained using classical FFT. The presented non-Fourier method is achieved by correlating the analyzed signal and reference single-harmonic signals and using Hilbert transform to obtain an envelope of cross-correlation. The envelope of crosscorrelation makes it possible to calculate appropriate indicator and make its plot in frequency domain as a spectrum. The spectrum obtained this way has its advantage over the FFT that the spectral resolution does not depend on duration of signal. At the same time, the spectral resolution can be much greater than spectral resolution resultant from FFT. Obtained results show that presented non-Fourier method gives frequency readout more accurate in comparison to FFT when the impulse response is a short-time signal e.g. few dozen of miliseconds lasting.