We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.
In order to clarify the mechanism for the generation of cigarette smoke, the combustion mechanism of a burning cigarette during a puff was investigated by focusing on air transfer. In particular, the air flow distribution outside a burning cigarette was observed and related to the aerodynamic effects of the cigarette paper and the puffing rate. The air flow rate was measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), using olive oil droplets as the tracer particles. It was found that air does not flow into the tip of the burning cigarette and that the air flow was concentrated at the region -2 to 2 mm around the cigarette paper char-line. This behavior was independent of the cigarette paper basis weight. When the puffing rate was changed from 2.5 to 35 mL/s, the air flow was concentrated at a region close to the cigarette paper char-line and the maximum velocity around the cigarette paper char-line increased with the puffing rate.
The combustion mechanism of a shredded tobacco bed during puffing has been investigated. To evaluate changes in the burning rate of the shredded tobacco bed in the region close to the paper char-line, an experimental study was carried out on the reverse combustion of the shredded tobacco bed packed in a furnace. Measurements of the temperature in the shredded tobacco bed were conducted to calculate the combustion propagation rate. The combustion propagation rate decreased with an increase in the tobacco shred width, the tobacco packing density, and with a decrease in the air flow velocity. To investigate differences in the combustion propagation rate, the oxygen transfer coefficient of the shredded tobacco bed was evaluated using the effective diameter of the tobacco shred and the effective surface area of the shredded tobacco bed. The combustion propagation rate of the shredded tobacco bed increased with the oxygen transfer coefficient of the shredded tobacco bed. Furthermore, the weight loss of the cigarette during puffing was evaluated. The weight loss of the cigarette during puffing showed an increase with an increase in the oxygen transfer coefficient of the shredded tobacco bed.
The transient temperature distribution inside a burning cigarette during a 2-second constant-draw single puff was measured to determine the heat generation rate at various positions. The calculation of the heat generation was applied only to a vertically positioned cigarette. The solid-phase temperature was measured by an infrared thermometer with an optical fiber probe, and the gas-phase temperature was measured by a thermocouple. Heat generation rates at various positions inside the burning cigarette were obtained from the temperature distribution profile based on the heat balance equations. Heat generation was found to be concentrated within a region 2 to 3 mm behind the paper char line. The maximum heat generation rate was observed during the initial period of puffing and the heat generation rate decreased significantly in the interval during the middle unsteady period. Steady heat generation was observed in the latter period. The puffing volume as well as the properties of cigarette paper affected the heat generation rate during the unsteady period. The amount of the heat generated during the unsteady period was more than half of the total regardless of the cigarette paper basis weight and the puffing volume.