Cytoplasms of several Nicotiana species - N. amplexicaulis, N. bigelovii, N. debneyi, N. eastii, N. exigua, N. glauca, N. glutinosa, N. goodspeedii, N. knightiana, N. occidentalis, N. plumbaginifolia, N. raimondii, N. suaveolens, N. undulata - were bred into the N. tabacum genomic background of flue cured tobacco cv. Zamojska 4. The collection includes also a cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) analogue of cv. Zamojska 4 with mutated cytoplasm of N. tabacum. Some of the alloplasmics were originally obtained in this laboratory (N. amplexicaulis, N. eastii, N. exigua, N. glauca, N. knightiana, N. raimondii). The remaining ones were acquired from other laboratories and backcrossed into Zamojska 4. All alien cytoplasms except that of N. knightiana produced full male sterility in Zamojska 4. The extent of male organ modifications varied from complete absence of stamens (N. suaveolens, N. tabacum) to petaloid and stigmatoid structures (most common effect) to malformed stamens (N. amplexicaulis, N. glauca) to apparently normal stamens (N. raimondii, N. knightiana). The majority of the alloplasmics showed response to tentoxin that was compatible with the cytoplasm donor. The exceptions were those involving N. exigua, N. raimondii, (N. raimondii I), and the cytoplasmic mutant of N. tabacum. There was some variation in growth and morphology among the alloplasmic variants of Zamojska 4. Under field infestation alloplasmics with the cytoplasm of N. plumbaginifoliaand N. eastiishowed symptoms of blue mold whereas the remaining alloplasmics and cv. Zamojska 4 were highly tolerant of that disease.
Cytoplasms of fifteen wild Nicotianae and a male sterile cytoplasm (cms) from N. tabacum were bred into the genome of a standard Polish flue-cured cultivar Wislica. The sixteen iso-genomic alloplasmics were compared for expression of male sterility and for some traits related to field performance. In cmsN. bigelovii, N. debneyi, N. exigua, N. megalosiphonor N. suaveolens stamens were absent, in cmsN. tabacum, N. glauca, N. goodspeedii or N. undulata stamens were absent or rudimentary, in cmsN. eastii, N. glutinosa or N. plumbaginifoliastamen tissue became petaloid, in those from N. knightiana and N. raimondiithey were morphologically normal. Female organ morphology was changed in cmsN. goodspeedii, N. occidentalis, N. exigua, N. debneyior N. bigelovii, seed set was reduced only in cmsN. occidentalis. Plant height in most alloplasmics was similar to that of the fertile variety but was strongly depressed by the cytoplasms of N. glutinosa, N. eastiiand N. plumbaginifolia. Leaf area was positively affected by N. amplexicaulis, N. bigeloviiand N. undulatacytoplasms, unaffected by N. suaveolens, N. tabacumand N. glaucacytoplasms and negatively affected by the remaining cytoplasms mostly because of the narrowing of the leaf blade. Cured leaf yields from cmsN. bigelovii were higher than those of Wislica. Leaf yields from cmsN. amplexicaulis, N. suaveolens, N. glauca or N. tabacum were not affected by the alien cytoplasm, whereas those from the remaining alloplasmics were depressed to different extents. Increased incidence of PVY and white spots (mostly attributable to Cercospora sp.) were observed on many of the alloplasmics especially on cmsN. exigua and N. suaveolens(PVY) and increased white spots only on cmsN. bigelovii, N. exigua, N. occidentalis and N. undulata.
Four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) F1flue-cured hybrids cv. Wiaelica × cv. Virginia Golta (VG), the male fertile analogue and the parental varieties were tested at two locations in Poland in a replicated field trial. The cms sources in the hybrids wereN. suaveolens,N. amplexicaulis,N. bigeloviiand aN. tabacumcms mutant. Under the slight to moderate pressure from black root rot present at the trial sites the hybrids showed a moderate tolerance of the disease characteristic of VG as opposed to medium strong susceptibility of Wislica. Apart from the effect of black root rot tolerance the vegetative vigor of the hybrids (plant height, leaf size, earliness) was affected by cytoplasm source. The F1hybrid withN. suaveolens cytoplasm flowered approximately three days later than the remaining hybrids. Of the cms hybrids tested cmsN. bigelovii produced the tallest plants with largest mid-position leaves. Yields of cured leaves were largely influenced by black root rot and were generally higher in VG and in the hybrids than in Wislica. Leaf yields and curability were generally little affected by cms source under low pressure from black root rot. At the site with a relatively high level of black root rot infestation the yields of cmsN. suaveolens were slightly lower but the percentage of light grades slightly higher compared to those of other cms hybrids. CmsN. suaveolens was the best hybrid in terms of money returns at the low black root rot field but it was the poorest hybrid performer under high pressure from the disease. Contents of nitrogen, sugars, nicotine and ash was little affected by source of cms. There was an increased incidence of potato virus Y (PVY) and white spots in cmsN. suaveolens and, to a lesser extent, in cmsN. bigelovii as compared to the remaining disease-free entries.
A total of 51 doubled haploid (DH) derivatives of the flue-cured true-breeding tobacco variety Wislica were obtained via anther culture and colchicine-induced chromosome doubling. Of that number eight DH lines showed morphological aberrations and/or reduced vigour that made them unfit to be grown in the field. The remaining 43 DH lines were grown in 2001 under regular flue-cured tobacco management and evaluated for principal growth indicators, yield, curability and gross money returns from unit area. In 2002, the evaluation was scaled down to include 13 best performing DH lines of 2001. The DH lines showed a considerable variation for basic growth parameters. Usually, the DH lines had more leaves but were shorter than the parental genotype mostly due to shorter internodes. The majority of DH lines showed delayed flowering compared to the parental cultivar. Yields of cured leaves varied extensively, some of the DH lines yielding above and some below cv. Wislica. Curability measured as percentage of light (1st to 3rd) grades was generally lower in DH lines compared to that in cv. Wislica. However, because of the high leaf yield some of the DH lines were not inferior to the parental cultivar with respect to money returns from unit area.
Nicoleta P. Berbec, Sorina M.F. Papuc, Andreea C.D.F. Tutulan-Cunita, Silvana M. Angelescu, Anca I. Lupu and Aurora A. Arghir
De novo acute myeloid leukemias (AML) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders in which chromosomal abnormalities are detected in a majority of patients. At present, cytogenetic changes are recognized as important diagnostic markers and prognosis determinants. Complex karyotype changes are associated with resistance to treatment and unfavorable evolution. We report on an AML case with complex karyotype changes characterized by molecular genetic techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization - FISH and array-based comparative genomic hybridization - array-CGH) and an extremely poor outcome. A 72 year-old female patient was admitted for genetic investigations with a clinical diagnosis of AML. Classical and molecular cytogenetic tests as well as array-CGH were performed. Complex chromosomal abnormalities were identified at diagnosis, consisting of genomic imbalances involving chromosomes 6, 7, 9, and 17. AML with complex karyotype changes is a heterogeneous disease, as a variety of genomic abnormalities are detected, involving virtually all chromosomes. The pathogenesis of AML with complex karyotype is poorly understood. The complexity of karyotypic changes in our case highlights the importance of using complementary genetic investigation in order to obtain a comprehensive view of AML genome.