The taxation of non - resident economic entities supposes the establishment of an administrative framework as fair, efficient, effective and comprehensible as possible, fact due to the multifaceted nature of the concept of profits generated by an enterprise and which depend on some items as: the foundation of incomes sources, the methods of valuation and collecting taxes, as well as different rules of establishment of some tax thresholds in different situations. Taking into account the legal doctrine, as well as jurisprudence, respectively the national and international tax practices, we can notice the fact that the profits of enterprises are founded, stricto sensu, on tax declarations made by companies. Therefore, we consider very important, in this way, the technical capability of tax administrations regarding the establishment, implementation and coordination of some good practice procedures. In this article, we have tackled the treatment regarding the taxation of non - resident economic entities in Romania. The first part of the paper represents a truth caveat in which is presented and analysed the international and European theoretical framework of legal and tax treatment of non - resident economic entities. The second part of the paper represents a quid pro quo of taxing of non - resident economic entities in Romania, in which are analyzed the taxing stipulations established on national level. The final part of the article is enriched with the presentation and analysis of a particular case regarding the taxation of non - resident economic entities in Romania. The conclusion resulted from this article highlights the fact that Romania had made important steps regarding ―the adjustment‖ of national tax legislation, as well as the permanent improving of tax administration framework in the field of non - resident economic entities taxation in Romania.
In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.
Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The case of Romania is analyzed in this article, through the DSSs Râşnov cause vs. ANAF Brasov, in order to highlight the way in which the framework of the double taxation avoidance convention is applied in Romania, if there are differences and divergences between the de jure provisions of the double taxation avoidance conventions and the de facto application, in practice, a state like Romania, which is in the process of catching up with economies in developed countries. The case presented in this article suggests that there is still room for maneuver to improve the framework for double taxation avoidance conventions in Romania and how they are applied in practice, which their provisions are interpreted and respected.
International double taxation represents one of the main problems’ for which taxpayers have to deal within a world fulfilled with globalization, uncertainty, risk, asymmetrical information and moral hazard. In this sense, in this article it is provided a qualitative overview regarding the appearance and evolution of the main double taxation conventions and their legal framework. In this article it is tackled some important issues, namely: the rationale behind the construction and engaging in double taxation conventions; the need for a coherent and just application of those conventions; the historical appearance and evolution of the double taxation conventions, as well as the quid pro quo OECD Model Convention and UN Model Convention. The conclusions of this article highlight the importance and ultimately need for construction of best practices new and complex multilateral tax convention at the UE level in order to diminish the contagious effects of the treaty shopping practices. The case study presented in this article from the Romanian jurisprudence highlights the multi-faced concept of double taxation and the comprehension approach which must be undertaken in order to solve the complex issues of the international taxation via double taxation treaties.
Nowadays, around the world, it can be noticed an important trend towards the pension system reforms. The creation of the European fiscal space, the effects of globalization and the movement of the labour force are important vectors towards creating a new type of social economy. The labour force is constantly moving around the countries that gathered important amounts of capital, especially in industrialized countries. Moreover, the lower levels of the birth rate combined with the increasing level of death rate unbalance the labour market. The entire European continent undergoes a demographical transition period, highlighted by aging and intensive migration. This phenomenon is registered both outside and inside the European Union, especially upon the highest industrialized Western countries. In this context, the human capital role and quality gain an important topic throughout the social and economic developments. In this article, we tackle some important aspects regarding the correlation between the actual status quo of population structure and some important features of future pension systems.
The pension system, together with the social assistance services form the social security system is recognized worldwide throughout the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for the purpose of insured person compensation for damages regarding some inherent risks as: permanent or temporary inability of work, old age or unemployment. The main objectives of a pension system are decreasing poverty regarding the lower income persons throughout the conditions of limitation of the working capacity which are financially vulnerable. In this article we provide a qualitative and quantitative overview regarding the Romanian pension system structure and mechanism. The conclusions of this article highlight the need for a more comprehensive reform of this system in order to strengthen it for the new challenges still to come in the near future.
Tax avoidance is a phenomenon faced by all countries, to a lesser or greater extent, and we can say that it has begun to manifest itself since the introduction of taxes. It is known that generally taxes are not pleasing to taxpayers, especially when their level is high. However, it is important for individuals, as a whole, not to evade from their tax obligations. In this context taxes can be regarded as a necessary evil to ensure the resources needed for state functioning. But often some taxpayers are looking for ways to avoid taxes, engaging either in tax evasion to the shelter of the law or in fraudulent evasion. In this paper we present some of the aspects that motivate individuals to pay taxes. Also we analyze the situation of budgetary revenues in Alba County and also the evolution of the main income of consolidated general budget in Romania. In the end of the paper we intend to draw a parallel between shadow economy, tax burden and tax losses due to shadow economy for a sample of 32 countries. In this way we can see where underground economy and tax losses have the highest values and where are required measures to mitigate them.
Business valuation is dealing with a series of difficulties, legislative and/or normative inaccuracies, as well as problems related to divergent results obtained by standard approaches. This material is synthesizing some of these problems, highlighting possible research directions. Each of the standard approaches is investigated, theoretically and practically analyzed, and the conclusions constitute a basis for developing new theories in the field of valuation.
The paper aims to prove the link between human capital and gross added value in bioeconomy sectors in the EU countries. Data from EUROSTAT data base regarding employment and gross added value in 6 bioeconomy sectors were used in a cross-country regression analysis. The econometric analysis of cross-country data shows a positive correlation between human capital in bioeconomy sectors and their gross output in 2015 in 26 European countries. It is found also that the correlation is stronger in the highly developed economies as in the central-eastern countries, as well as in the European economy.