The Moldavian Plateau and Plain have few drinking water sources (the case of Iaşi and Vaslui Counties). The main type of fresh water sources are groundwater and surface water. The Moldavian Plateau rural settlements are affected the most by the lack of viable, unpolluted water sources to ensure a volume able to cover the consumers’ demand. The pollution phenomenon induced by the non-availability of rural sewerage systems and also by the settlements’ areas foundation rocks have decreased the groundwater and surface water sources quality parameters. The adduction, transport and distribution networks of water supply systems are affected by the „water loss“ phenomenon. Water management in a transmission and distribution network must correlate the number of water sources, available volume, acceptable quality parameters and inherent water losses from networks with the consumers’ demands. The optimisation of water management in a given geographic space has led to the establishment of „regional water supply systems“. This process relies on the minimisation of water losses. The case study carried out in Iaşi County shows the importance of the regional water supply system development through optimal exploitation of Moldavian Plateau and Plain water sources.
Water losses are present in all water supply system pipes. Their parameters and value vary depending on the constructional and functional features of the pipes (diameter, material, pressure, embedding environment, location, position etc.). The phenomenon is present in all water supply systems networks in Romania as well as globally. The water supply pipes within the regional water supply system are located in areas with diversified relief, from plateaus and hills to plains. The studies and researches were carried out in the geographical placement area of the Timişeşti-Iaşi pipeline. The geographic area studied is enclosed in Siret and Prut hydrographic basins. The paper aims to establish a correlation between the detection methods of water leaks from pipes and the areal relief features in Iaşi County. At the same time, it is highlighted the impact of the variation of the geographical relief characteristics on the water loss management on different type of pipes.
Research has analyzed components of the climate and hydrological regime on the Trotuş River and its tributaries over the past 30 years. The hydrological risk was determined by natural causes, but also by anthropogenic causes. Parameters of hydroclimatic risk are represented of the torrential rainfall, flood flows, high frequency of high flows, high erosion speeds etc. The research revealed that at very low intervals (3-5 years) there were floods with very high flows. Changing the climate regime (precipitation concentration on small days) and the natural relief forms in the hydrographical basin (the Eastern Carpathian Mountains) allowed natural risk to occur in the hydrological regime of the Trotuş River. Anthropic factors, in particular, the modification of the leakage coefficient by deforestation of forests and the change of agricultural use of land with large slopes have contributed to the occurrence of anthropogenic risk in the Trotuş River basin. Corroboration of the two types of risk, natural and anthropic, has led to a hydrological disaster regime in the Trotuş River Basin.
The paper presents the studies and researches on the natural and anthropic risk parameters on the Moldova riverbed in the Soci area, Iasi County. In this area are located hydrotechnical structures for regulation of the riverbed and shore defence for the protection of the undercrossing of the Timisesti-Iasi adduction pipeline. The theoretical study analyzed hydrological risk parameters (especially liquid and solid flows) recorded over the last 30 years. High flow rates have a high hydroclimatic risk for bed and river construction. Anthropogenic risk parameters were manifested in the morphological modification of the minor riverbed of the Moldova River. An important anthropogenic risk is the uncontrolled exploitation of the ballast in the bed and river banks of Moldova. The effects of this risk contributed to the descent of the bed of the bed at an accelerated pace, along with the erosion of the banks. The accumulation of the effects caused by the natural and the anthropic risks led to important morphological changes in the riverbed of Moldova. These modifications have altered the safety state of the construction of the undercrossing of the Timisesti-Iasi adduction pipeline. The result of the hydrological and also human actions was the degradation of the pipelines until their rupture.
The development of a GIS model that includes both information on real estate cadaster and water supply networks is an efficient one. The paper presents the stages of making such a model, starting from field measurements, to structuring the database and custom layouts. Today’s large volume of data requires information to be centralized into tables that are then attached to graphical entities. In the analysis it was considered that the main components of the real estate cadaster system are the field, the parcel, the owner, and for the water supply network distribution networks, hydrants and manhole. GIS programs aim to specifying properties on custom layouts on structural and functional areas. Autocad and ArcMap software allow you to get themed maps on specific system domains. The study model can be simple to complex and can be generalized for any hydro-urban system (urban localities, rural localities, industrial areas, etc.).
The work involves the realization of a GIS model that includes both information on real estate cadastre and water supply networks. This shows the stages of making such a model, starting from field measurements, to structuring the database and custom layouts. In the study, the distribution pipelines equipped with fire hydrants and the existing building types in the area were considered as the main elements. Buildings were classified according to importance, height, destination, mapping indexes, etc. and have been integrated into the GIS model. GIS programs aim at specifying as much as possible the textual data attached to perform complex analyzes. Autocad and ArcMap programs allow you to get thematic maps on building types, pipeline network analysis on which hydrants are located, and how to protect firewalls. The study model was developed only for a sector in the city of Iaşi, but it can be extended to an application that can be used in other urban areas for the purpose of being used by the water-channel directorate, the intervention teams, the public administration local, etc.