The theory of fuzzy sets allows to analyze insufficiently precise, accurate, complete phenomena which can not be modeled by the theory of probability or interval mathematics. We define fuzzy sets as sets where the boundary of the set is unclear and depends on subjective estimation or individual preference. In addition to the standard interpretation scale, described above, a set of numbers to each qualitative attribute must be assigned. In addition to the standard interpretation scale a set of numbers to each qualitative attribute must be assigned. First of all, it is necessary to determine the procedure for determining fuzzy numbers describing the attributes. One of the imperfections of the fuzzy sets is subjectivism when defining the boundaries of fuzzy sets and functions of belonging, which can significantly influence the final decision. The decision maker’s subjectivity is also present in the determination of weighted coefficients. However, in case of giving weight, fixed values are necessary. Some decisions require multidisciplinary knowledge, so the decision-making process includes more group decision-makers, who independently give their grades.
The paper presents the process of ranking and classifying countries using the I-distance method. The I-distance method is a method of classification and multidimensional ranking based on the distance values between selected indicators. The selection of indicators was carried out using the principal components analysis, whereby the statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), the latest version 21th PASW Statistics, is used. The application of the I-distance determines the relative efficiency indicators. Classification and ranking are conducted based on the economic development using macroeconomic indicators for the selected European countries.
In this study, we aimed to analyse the empirical determinants of cash holdings on the sample of non-financial companies operating in the Republic of Serbia. For that purpose, dynamic panel data models were estimated by utilising the generalised method of moments for the period from 2008 to 2013. The econometric analysis indicates that companies with higher cash flow hold more cash in their assets. Larger companies as well as companies with more liquid assets and higher turnover coefficients tend to reduce their cash levels. According to the results, companies operating in the Republic of Serbia tend to hold the optimal level of cash and prefer internal sources of financing, which is in line with the principles of trade-off theory and pecking order theory.