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Štefan Tkáč

Abstract

Despite the long history of hydropower technology and rising number of system harvesting energy from alternative sources, the constant research within hydro power sector becoming increasingly important as the power from water was and still is the leading alternative source of green energy generation, capitalized not necessarily within micro-urban structures only. The advantages of hydro systems involve their relatively low acquisition cost against durability, the possibility of gaining energy independence, relatively high flexibility and adaptability for spatial conditions and energy demands of the end users. Nowadays micro hydro systems could capitalize head range starting at 100cm and the efficiency of hydro systems in general ranges between 65-75% in micro and small applications climbing up to 96% in macro designs. It is mostly due to flexibility in applications, adaptability in combinations with other renewable energy systems and the ability to generate clean, stable, thus reliable energy that makes technical development the most vibrant and noticeable in the micro sphere.

Open access

Štefan Tkáč

Abstract

To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual “energy circles”. This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

Open access

Zdenko Tkáč, Štefan Čorňák, Vladimír Cviklovič, Ján Kosiba, Josef Glos, Juraj Jablonický and Rastislav Bernát

Abstract

This paper is focused on the impacts of the biodegradable hydraulic and transmission fluid (Universal Tractor Transmission Oil) on operation of tractor hydraulic and transmission systems. The fluid was used in the hydraulic and transmission systems of a Zetor Proxima 6321 tractor. Fluid samples were taken from the Zetor Proxima 6321 tractor at intervals of 250 engine hours. These samples were subjected to an infrared spectroscopy analysis in order to measure the total acid number and perform the ferrography analysis. This paper proves minimal impacts of the biodegradable hydraulic fluid on operation of the Zetor Proxima 6321 tractor. The biodegradable fluid meets the requirements for the operation of agricultural tractors in terms of low impacts on the wear of hydraulic components.