In an attempt to identify patients who have successfully survived a resuscitated cardiac arrest (CA), attention is drawn to resistin and S100B protein, two biomarkers that have been studied in relation to CA.
The study aimed to identify the potential cut-off serum values for resistin and S100B in patients who had CA, compared to healthy volunteers, given that, currently, none of the markers have normal and pathological reference range limits for human assay levels related to this pathology.
Materials and Methods
Forty patients, resuscitated after out-of-hospital CA and forty healthy controls, were included in the study. All patients were followed up for seventy-two hours after CA or until death. Blood samples for biomarkers were collected on admission to the ED (0-time interval) and at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours following resuscitation. Only one blood sample was collected from the controls. The serum concentrations of biomarkers were measured.
For each time interval, median serum levels of resistin and S100 B were significantly higher in patients with CA compared to healthy controls. The cut-of value for resistin in patients with CA, at the 12-hours versus controls, was > 8.2 ng/ml. The cut-of value for S100B in patients with CA versus controls recorded at 6 hours, was > 11.6 pg/ml.
Serum levels of resistin and S100B are higher among resuscitated CA patients compared to controls.
Study objective. The objective of this study was to investigate PON1 phenotype and genotype in Romanian patients with abdominal obesity. Materials and methods. The study groups consisted of 88 patients with abdominal obesity and 46 subjects with normal waist circumference, matched for age and gender. For each patient, we determined the clinical parameters that may influence PON1 activities. Q192R and L55M polymorphisms analysis in the PON1 gene were performed by PCR-RFLP using specific primers and restriction enzymes. PON1 lactonase, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were assayed by spectrophotometric methods. Analysis of PON1 genotypes and activities distribution in the obese and non-obese individuals was performed with Med- Calc Software (Version 188.8.131.52). Results. There was no statistically significant difference between obese and controls in regards to age and gender. The study revealed that PON1 activities were not influenced by gender. Of all PON1 activities, only the paraoxonase activity was inversely correlated with age, being significantly reduced in patients with abdominal obesity compared to non-obesity (p=0.009). Abdominal circumference independently influenced only the variation of arylesterase activity (R2=6.5%, p=0.003). Distribution of PON1 genotypes in the study groups was significantly different (p=0.007) only for the Q192R but not for the L55M genotypes. The QR genotype had the highest influence on paraoxonase activity (R2=40.6; p<0.001). The MM genotype had the greatest influence on arylesterase (R2=11.3%, p<0.001) and lactonase activities (R2=7.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions. Q192R genotypes distribution was significantly different in obese patients and the QR genotype influenced greatly the paraoxonase activity. The MM genotype had the most important independent influence on the lactonase and arylesterase activities .
Introduction: Reduced serum levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities are associated with diseases involving increased oxidative stress, such as acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine whether serum PON1 activities are a prognostic factor for one-year survival following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Material and methods: We prospectively followed for one-year 75 patients diagnosed and treated for STEMI. Clinical, laboratory and imagistic data were gathered after coronary angiography. PON1 activities (paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lactonase) were assayed spectophotometrically on samples of heparinized plasma taken from the patients in a timeframe of maximum 20 minutes after coronary angiography.
Results: Increased mortality was linked to age (patients over 68 years), permanent atrial fibrillation or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% (associated with global hypokinesia, apical or septal akinesia), trivascular disease atherosclerosis, reduced PON1 activities (paraoxonase <18.4 IU/mL, arylesterase <12.6 IU/mL, lactonase <27.6 IU/mL), and glomerular filtration rate levels <54 mL/min/1.73m2. Multivariate survival analysis showed the independent prognostic role of age (HR 3.92; 95%CI 1.08-14.16; p=0.03), LVEF (HR 9.93; 95%CI 2.20-44.86; p=0.003) and arylesterase (HR 4.25; 95%CI 0.94-19.18; p=0.05) for one-year mortality.
Conclusion: Reduced arylesterase activity of PON1 is an independent predictor of one-year survival after acute myocardial infarction.