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Open access

Łukasz Gmerek, Katarzyna Katulska, Karolina Horbacka and Piotr Krokowicz

Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease

The numbers of patients with diagnosed Crohn's disease in Poland continue to be on the rise. It may be assumed that it is associated not with an increased incidence but with significant advancements in diagnostic techniques which in an increasingly better manner solve problems of abdominal pain. One of such methods is magnetic resonance enterography, which gives high hope in the diagnostics of Crohn's disease.

The aim of the study was the evaluation of the results of magnetic resonance enterography (MREG) and their comparison with the results of histopathological examination o perioperative specimens.

Material and methods. The clinical material comprised 48 patients with suspected Crohn's disease. Colonoscopy was performed in all the patients, followed by magnetic resonance enterography, which evaluated the lesion localisation, large intestine wall thickening, small intestine stenosis, mesenteric vessel proliferation, infiltration of surrounding adipose tissue, lymph node enlargement, presence of enteroenteral, enterovesical and enterocutaneous fistulas. Next, a surgical procedure was performed, with collection of specimen for histopathology. The examination results were compared with those of magnetic resonance enterography.

Results. MREG was performed in 48 individuals. Suspected Crohn's disease based on the above examination was diagnosed in 35 cases, isolated small intestine inflammation - in 5, and fibrosis in the remaining 5 patients. No significant differences were found between the lesion localisation done by MREG or perioperativelly. Crohn's disease was confirmed by histopathology in 36 cases. The sensitivity of MREG with histopathology was 91.6%, and the specificity - 77.8%.

Conclusions. Magnetic resonance enterography is a highly effective and sensitice method in the diagnostics of Crohn's disease, free of adverse effects and possible to be performed even in pregnant female patients.

Open access

Łukasz Krokowicz, Mariusz Mielniczuk, Michał Drews and Maria Siemionow

Long-Term Follow up of the Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT) on Microcirculation in a Denervated Muscle Flap

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a golden standard for treatment of kidney and urinary calculi. It is also widely used in a number of orthopedic pathologies and other fields of medicine. Although clinical success the exact mechanism of shock wave technology is not well established. Cremaster muscle model used in our experiment is structurally and functionally similar to other skeletal muscles (striated muscle).

The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of ESWT treatment on microcirculation and leukocyte-endothelial interactions after longer time period post ESWT application.

Material and Methods: In experiment we used 34 Lewis rats weighting 125-160 grams. Animals were divided into 4 groups - Group 1 (n=10) control, without ESWT application, group 2 (n=8), in which measurements were performed 3 days after application of 500 impulses of ESWT; group 3 (n=8) in which measurements were performed 7 days after application of 500 impulses of ESWT; group 4 (n=8), in which measurements were performed 21 days after application of 500 impulses of ESWT.

Results. The experiment showed a decrease in functional capillaries activity, we also observed the reduction in leukocyte rolling over the endothelium and an increase in flow velocity in V1 venules.

Conclusions. ESWT therapy after 3, 7 and 21 days decreases inflammatory process in the muscle, the other of its effect is weakened. This confirms that the treatment had a positive effect if ESWT is applied repeatedly, because only in this case a wave maintains its beneficial effects.

Open access

Katarzyna Katulska, Mateusz Wykrętowicz, Piotr Stajgis, Łukasz Krokowicz, Tomasz Banasiewicz and Marek Stajgis

Open access

Wiktor Meissner, Łukasz Krokowicz, Adam Bobkiewicz and Michał Drews


Obesity, a major public health issue of the 21st century, is increasingly common in adults and children. No good results of pharmacological treatment of obesity results in rapid development of bariatric surgery, which treats obesity and comorbidities associated. There are many surgical options for treating obesity. Options for surgical management of morbid obesity include restrictive (adjustable gastric banding, vertical band gastroplasty), restrictive/resective (sleeve gastrectomy), restrictive/malabsorptive (Rouxen-Y gastric by-pass, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) and purely malabsorptive procedures (duodenal switch). Among them, swedish adjustable gastric banding (SAGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) have been more frequently performed. SAGB is considered to be safe and effective method of weight loss and elimination of diseases associated with obesity. Laparoscopic gastric banding offers the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, adjustability, and reversibility. Despite fewer number of complications than other bariatric operations, patients after SAGB may have unique complications that are characteristic of the SAGB and require special management and treatment. This paper presents a rare case of complete migration of the band into the gastric lumen.

Open access

Tomasz Kozłowski, Dariusz Godlewski, Maciej Biczysko, Marcin Grochowalski, Marcin Nelke, Jacek Paszkowski, Maciej Borejsza-Wysocki, Łukasz Krokowicz, Piotr Krokowicz, Tomasz Banasiewicz and Michał Drews

Analysis of the Efficacy of Screening Tests in Colorectal Cancer by Faecal Occult Blood Test - Own Experience

Screening of the colon cancer seems to be important to improve the results of the surgical treatment. There are different screening programs, the most common use the fecal occult blood (FOB) tests or colonoscopy.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the colon cancer screening based on the FOB test and perform the algorhytm improving the effectiveness of the screening.

Material and methods. 941 patients with the positive results of the FOB (immunochromatographic method) test were investigated. In all cases the rectosigmoidoscopy for the detection of the lower GI tract pathology was done. 312 patients were qualified to colonoscopy.

Results. Adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinomas were detected in 116 patients. There was no correlation between clinical symptoms and the colorectal cancer. The colorectal cancer was recognized statistically more common at the patients with previous detected neoplasia, in the colon and other organs, with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Conclusions. The colorectal cancer screening based on the FOB can be effective in the early recognition of the bowel malignancy. The previous questionnaire can eliminate from the FOB screening the patients without indications (previously done colonoscopy or barium enema) or with directly indications for colonoscopy.

Open access

Adam Bobkiewicz, łukasz Krokowicz, Tomasz Banasiewicz, Tomasz Kościński, Maciej Borejsza-Wysocki, Witold Ledwosiński and Michał Drews


Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (BDI) are still a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. With the introduction of the laparoscopic technique for the treatment of cholecystolithiasis, the incidence of iatrogenic BDI increased.

The aim of the study was a retrospective analysis of 69 patients treated at the department due to iatrogenic BDI in the years 2004-2014.

Material and methods. In this paper, we presented the results of a retrospective analysis of 69 patients treated at the Department due to iatrogenic BDI in the years 2004-2014. The data were analysed in terms of age, sex, type of biliary injury, clinical symptoms, the type of repair surgery, the time between the primary surgery and the BDI management, postoperative complications and duration of hospital stay.

Results. 82.6% of BDI occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 8.7% occurred during open cholecystectomy, whereas 6 cases of BDI resulted from surgeries conducted for other indications. In order to assess the degree of BDI, Bismuth and Neuhaus classifications were used (for open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy respectively). 84.1% of patients with confirmed BDI, were transferred to the Department from other hospitals. The average time between the primary surgery and reoperation was 6.2 days (SD 4). The most common clinical symptom was biliary fistula observed in 78.3% of patients. In 28 patients, unsuccessful attempts to manage BDI were made prior to the admission to the Department in other centres. The repair procedure was mainly conducted by laparotomy (82.6%) and by the endoscopic approach (15.9%). Hepaticojejunostomy was the most common type of reconstruction following BDI (34.7%).

Conclusions. The increase in the rate of iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a challenging surgical problem. The management of BDI should be multidisciplinary treatment. Referring patients with both suspected and confirmed iatrogenic BDI to tertiary centres allows more effective treatment to be implemented.

Open access

Łukasz Krokowicz, Sylwia Sławek, Witold Ledwosiński, Adam Bobkiewicz, Maciej Borejsza-Wysocki, Barbara Kuczyńska, Krzysztof Szmyt, Jacek Paszkowski, Michał Drews and Tomasz Banasiewicz


Stoma is an intestinal fistula created in emergency or by elective indications, and it is done to drain out the digestive tract content. In some patients there is a disturbance passage of gastric contents through the stoma, which may take the form of chronic constipation or even periodic subileus that will sooner or later require surgical treatment.

The aim of the study was the assessment of the causes and method of treatment of constipation in patients with intestinal stoma.

Material and methods. A total of 331 patients with stoma followed by Ostomy and Proctology Outpatient Clinic were included in the study in the years 2011-2014. The study included 146 women and 185 men and the average age was 61.3 ± 12.7 years. Within the entire froup, 273 patients had the end stoma performed whereas in 58 patients the loop stoma was created. The highest percentage of patients were the ones with diverticulosis and colorectal cancer, i.e. 132 and 114 patients respectively. A stoma was created in 35 patients due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in 23 patients because of cancer, in 14 as a result of injuries and in 13 due to rectovaginal fistula.

Results. Out of the entire group subject to study (331 patients) 93 patients (28.1%) suffered from constipation. 50 patients with constipation required surgical intervention. The most common indication for surgical treatment was the parastomal hernia (36 patients, 72%), other indications were the narrowing of the stoma (5 patients, 10%), its collapse (6 patients, 12%) or prolapse (3 patients, 6%). Parastomal hernia was responsible for 84% of constipation within the stoma and 86.1% were treated with laparotomy (31 out of 36 patients). Other causes of constipation were the stomal stenoses (5 patients), collapse of the stoma (6 patients) and stomal prolapse (3 patients). All patients were treated surgically with a good final result.

Conclusions. Constipation associated with dysfunction of the stoma in most cases should be treated surgically. Parastomal hernia is the most common cause of constipation in the stoma. Treatment should be performed in due time because of the possibility of developing complications, especially dangerous one is a strangulated parastomal hernia and ischemia of stoma.

Open access

Krzysztof Szmyt, Łukasz Krokowicz, Adam Bobkiewicz, Bartosz Cybułka, Witold Ledwosiński, Maciej Gordon, Ahmed Alammari, Tomasz Banasiewicz and Michał Drews


Open abdomen technique is a surgical treatment in which the fascia and skin are left open in order to reduce the value of the intra-abdominal pressure. According to the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) normal values of the intra-abdominal pressure are between 5 and 7 mm Hg. Intra-abdominal hypertension occurs when the pressure value is equal to or exceeds 12 mm Hg.

The aim of the study was to compare the results of the open abdomen treatment using standard methods and negative pressure wound therapy.

Material and methods. The study was in the form of a retrospective analysis of the documentation of the patients treated with open abdomen technique. The study included 37 patients treated in the Department of General and Endocrine Surgery and Gastroenterological Oncology and in the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care of the Medical Sciences since 2009-2012. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 20) was treated with standard surgical procedures (laparostomy, repeated peritoneal cavity lavage) and group 2 (n =17) was treated using negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). The analysed clinical data included the period of hospitalization and clinical outcome (survival vs death), the occurrence of enteroatmospheric fistulae, cyclical determination of the quantitative C-reactive protein levels.

Results. The number of deaths during hospitalization in the group treated with NPWT was lower than in the group treated with standard methods (3 vs 9). The number of fistulae during hospitalization in the group treated with NPWT dropped as compared to the group treated using standard procedures (18% vs 70%). The decrease in the CRP levels was recorded in the group treated with NPWT and its increase - in the group treated with standard methods. Conclusions. The use of NPWT in patients requiring open abdomen treatment is reasonable due to the positive results with respect to survival rates and the decrease in the number of gastrointestinal fistulae. It is necessary to train the physicians in using this type of therapy in the form of workshops and in the clinical setting.

Open access

Adam Bobkiewicz, Tomasz Banasiewicz, Łukasz Krokowicz, Andrzej Dryjas, Mateusz Wykrętowicz, Katarzyna Katulska, Maciej Borejsza-Wysocki, Stanisław Malinger and Michał Drews


Zenker diverticulum (ZD) is the most common type of diverticula of the esophagus. Most often refers to men with a peak incidence in the seventh and eighth decade of life. In the majority diverticula remains asymptomatic and in patients with symptomatic course of the disease symptoms are often nonspecific.

Aim of the study was to present the authors’ own experience in surgical treatment of Zenker diverticulum.

Material and methods. In this paper we present an analysis of 31 patients with confirmed ZD treated surgically at the Clinic in 2004-2014. Patients were analyzed in terms of age, gender, clinical symptoms, diverticulum size, type of surgery, the time to return to the oral intake, hospital stay and perioperative complications.

Results. 22 men and 9 women were enrolled it this study. The mean age of the patients was 64.8 (SD, 10.7; in the range of 28 to 82 years). 29 patients (93.5%) underwent resection of the diverticulum, while diverticulopexy was performed in two patients. In 25 (80.6%) cases stapler device was used, while in 4 (12.9%) resection was performed manually. The average size of resected diverticulum was 4.9 cm (SD, 1.5). Following the surgery in four patients (12.9%) complications were present. The average operating time was 118.7 minutes (SD, 42.2, in the range of 50 to 240 minutes). The mean length of hospital stay was 9.3 (SD, 3.3).

Conclusions. Surgical treatment of ZD is associated with high effectiveness and low recurrence rate. Despite the advantages of endoscopic techniques, surgical treatment is characterized by one- stage procedure. The use of mechanical suture (stapler) significantly improves the operation, although on the basis of our own analysis there was no superiority revealed over hand sewn. Unquestionable adventage of classical technique is the opportunity to histopathological evaluation of resected diverticulum what is impossible to achieve in endoscopic techniques.