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Open access

Łukasz Tyburski and Paweł Przybylski

Abstract

In 2015 in Kampinos National Park (KNP), monitoring of tree crown condition was conducted in specimens of the Scots pine, which is the dominant tree species in the park (73.3%). The monitoring was aimed at providing information about the health of pine trees in the national park area. The monitoring was conducted on 26 plots throughout the park. The stands where the pine is not a dominant species were omitted. On each plot, 20 trees were subjected to assessment. In total, 520 pine trees were examined. The monitoring was conducted by the assessment of tree crowns based on the adapted forest monitoring methodology conducted as part of National Environmental Monitoring. On the basis of the monitoring, it was found that 75.4% of the trees are characterised by slight defoliation and 94.4% of the specimens were not found to have discoloration of the assimilation apparatus. No differences were found between areas situated closer and further from the administrative borders of Warsaw. On the basis of the monitoring, it was found that the pine trees in KNP are in a good health condition. Dendrometric measurements show that the average diameter at breast height (DBH) of the analysed trees is 26.6 cm. The average height of the trees is 20.4 m. The average age of the examined tree stands is 84. The monitoring will be continued in subsequent years in order to record the changes taking place in tree crowns.

Open access

Łukasz Tyburski and Paweł Przybylski

Abstract

The Kampinos National Park (KNP), in terms of ecology, is an exceptionally valuable place in the Polish lowland region. Until the 20th century, as a result of limited human influence on the natural resources of the Kampinos Forest, it can be presumed that the 100-year-old tree stands were shaped by natural ecological processes. This study contains a detailed assessment of crown conditions, dendrometric measurements and visible disease symptoms in the oldest fragments of the KNP, as well as statistical evaluation of the relationships between these factors. Results were correlated with ecological factors such as precipitation and temperature. For the purpose of the study, five tree stands, each over 130 years old, were selected. In each stand, the level of defoliation was assessed, based on the forest monitoring methodology performed in Poland for the State Environmental Monitoring. Tree height, circumference, and diameter at breast height measurements were performed for all the trees, and any visible disease symptoms were described. Defoliation data were used to classify 93.6% of the trees as the second level of stand damage (the so-called ‘warning’ level) according to the monitoring methodology. Observed disease factors confirm the physiological weakening of the trees. The populations studied exhibited a range of mean height and stem volume, and these were not significantly related to the level of defoliation or visible disease symptoms. Ecological factors, especially the drought in 2015, probably did not have a negative impact on the examined stands. The analysed pine populations demonstrate physiological weakness, but this appears to be related to their age and natural ecological processes.

Open access

Łukasz Tyburski and Paweł Przybylski

Abstract

During 2015 and 2016, in the Kampinos National Park (KNP), monitoring was conducted for the population of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), which occupies 12.5% of the tree stands in the park and, after the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), is the second most important species there. The aim of the observation was to obtain data about the current condition of alder in the National Park. Monitoring was carried out on eight plots designated throughout the park. Stands where alder was not the dominant species were omitted. On each plot, 20 trees were evaluated with a total of 160 plants assessed. The age of the tree stands analysed was 55–120 years. Monitoring was conducted by assessing the tree’s crowns, based on the methodology of forest monitoring implemented by the National Environmental Monitoring. Based on the analyses, it was found that the average defoliation of alder in 2015 reached 28.1%, and 34.4% in 2016, with the differences being statistically significant. Among 70% of the specimens, there was no discoloration of the assimilation apparatus. There were significant differences in defoliation between research plots located inside the park and near its borders, which can be associated with the influence of anthropogenic factors. Based on the monitoring, it was found that the state of alder crowns in KNP is a warning or average, depending on the year of observation. Therefore, it is necessary to continue monitoring the state of alder crowns in KNP. On the basis of the study results, it was also found that the biosocial structure of the researched tree stands is formed correctly. The dendrometric measurements conducted show that the average diameter of the trees analysed, at breast height was 30.5 cm with an average height of 25.5 m. To analyse the changes in height and breast height, dendrometric measurements must be repeated in 2020. Monitoring will be continued in the following years to observe the changes.

Open access

Łukasz Tyburski, Piotr T. Zaniewski, Leszek Bolibok, Mateusz Piątkowski and Andrzej Szczepkowski

Abstract

Pines are generally fire-resistant trees. There is a shortage of research on the behaviour of Scots pine after surface fire in older stands. The aim of the work was to describe the effect of the surface fire intensity on the mortality of pines of various diameter at breast height (DBH), including older trees. The research was conducted in Peucedano-Pinetum oligotrophic Scots-pine forest in Kampinos National Park (KPN, central Poland) on the area of two adjacent surface fire sites originated in spring 2015 in 60- to 200-year-old stands (site area: 10,92 ha). There were 45 (28 burned and 17 control) permanent plots established after the fire. The share of not burned, superficially burned and completely burnout organic horizon of the soil was determined within all of them. DBH and location of pine trees were measured within all of the plots on the area of 200 m2. For all of the trees for which full information about soil organic horizon damage was mapped, the prevailing type of disturbance in their close neighbourhoods with radii of 1 and 2 m was assessed. The mortality of trees was assessed after each vegetation period up to 2017, basing on the presence of green needles on the trees. The influence of fire intensity on the survival of trees was examined on whole permanent plot level as well as on individual tree level. Strong linear correlation was observed between Scots pine mortality and the share of plots area with damaged organic layer, especially at the end of the third vegetation period after fire. Logistic regression models constructed for individual trees suggest that bigger tree diameter (hence, thicker bark) diminished the odds of mortality only after two vegetation periods from the fire. After the third vegetation period, only the intensity of surface fire in the close neighbourhood of trees influenced (negatively) the chance on survival. The size of trees did no matter in this case. Nearly all of the trees that were located within burnout organic matter areas died. The results did not support the commonly known mechanism of enhancement of bigger Scots pine tree survival after surface fire because of thicker bark responsible for heat protection. Probably, the main cause of observed mortality was not overheating of cambium but it was rather connected to massive fine root loses. Scots pines growing on oligotrophic arid sites modify their root system to explore topsoil layers with higher proportion of shallow roots, growing even in organic litter layer. This corresponds with massive (regardless of size) pine mortality within sites characterised by complete burnout of organic matter layer and very high survival in those ones with only surfacely burned litter layer. The results can improve the assessment of surface fires consequences in managed Scots pine stands growing in oligotrophic conditions.