This paper is the third publication from the series of three articles about cognitive challenges in management science. It is the result of the further discussions and reflections concerning the cognitive problems of management after publication of the books about epistemology of management. The paper is a trial to forecast the main cognitive trends and tendencies on the basis of the diagnosis made in two papers in series “Cognitive challenges in management science”. The chosen trends in development of management sciences are: expansion of natural sciences, growing inter-disciplinarity of research, growing specialization, net-marketing in management discourse, challenge of cultural relativism, growing criticism and reflexivity. Response of management sciences to the challenges connected to: interdisciplinary nature, growing specialization, and expansion of natural history can lead to further development of our discipline, but the possibility of disintegration also should not be ruled out. Deepening specialization, lack of long-range theory, and growing significance of natural history could lead to disintegration of our discipline, whose fields would be incorporated by other domains. I think that in order to avoid this possibility it would be desirable to uphold the cohesion of management sciences through deepening the cognitive reflection and openness to inspirations originating in other areas of science. But future is difficult to predict and maybe other trends that are not too visible now will change management sciences in future.
The proposed model of organisational cultures I used in my research is based on three dichotomous dimensions borrowed from G. Hofstede and other researchers. Although Hofstede proposed studying organisational cultures according to other dimensions of values than in the case of cultures of whole societies, there are numerous authors who think his model is more general and so apply it to organisational cultures too. It seems that three out of five dimensions proposed by Hofstede can become a basis for such a multidimensional model and typology. I am also in favour of this approach, as I believe that three of the dimensions included in Hofstede’s model are of a universal character, whether they concern individuals, organisational cultures or social cultures [Sułkowski 2012, pp. 103-118]
The aim of the article is to present cognitive challenges in the area of management. Researchers and reflective managers still work on the identity of management belonging to the social sciences. The paper depicts the connections between cognitive problems (from the epistemological point of view), management methodology and social practice. Management sciences are parts of historical discourse and because of that epistemological and methodological levels have an impact on social practice. The main concern of this paper is the role of the management scientist, consultant and teacher. The analysis suggests that academic teacher and researcher are social roles with a character that can be called universal. Practitioner is associated rather with pragmatic aspect of management science. Practitioners are often regarded as managers, but their roles in the organisation might as well be non-managerial.
Elements of organizational culture - theoretical and methodological issues The purpose of this article is therefore the analysis of the various elements of organizational culture that are present in different concepts of culture. This is an important problem from the point of view of theory and practice of managing organizations because it is through research and development that culture can be managed, or at least influenced. The article analyzes different elements of organizational culture that can be identified in empirical research. 13 different types of cultural components were identified, ranging from values to organizational subcultures.
The purpose of this paper is to present the key themes of strategic management from the perspective of Critical Management Studies [More: Sułkowski, 2012]. Strategic management seen as the most advanced and sophisticated form of targeting reseved only for the elite top menagement is interpreted by critical scholars as an ideology of power exercised by elites. The article presents the analysis of the foundations of the CMS, and then puts these issues in the field of strategic management.
Current changes in technology and the role of the Internet open up new opportunities for companies both to communicate and to work. The fact that Social Media entered the business landscape, and in particular the recruitment landscape leads to a demand for knowledge about recruitment trends regarding social media. Contemporary social media and recruitment texts have been reviewed in order to identify what impact social media is having on the recruitment industry. It focuses on how companies and recruitment professionals are taking advantage of the social media landscape to recruit talented people. Relevant existing research has been reviewed and primary research conducted (both qualitative and quantitative). The authors have conducted 8 IDIs with recruiter from various industries. The latter consisted of 147 CAWIs with employees from various Polish organizations from several different industries. The article presents interesting results that can be especially useful for recruitment managers, specialists and company owners. It is recommended that in order to gain a fuller picture of the issues underlying the findings, quantitative research on a bigger scale should be undertaken.
The research methodology of family businesses is increasingly becoming the subject of scientific discussion that shows how difficult and complex task it is. Research area is located on the border of several disciplines, which raises significant methodological problems.
Qualitative methods are useful for studying the problems of small family businesses, in particular related to the sphere of issues of identity, culture, values and the relationship between the family and the company. Qualitative methods allow for more efficient acquisition of reliable data on ‘sensitive’ subjects in comparison with quantitative methods. It is equally important to provide information about the complex social processes that are better studied with open methods.
The methodology of qualitative research is not without its limitations. First of all, by definition it poses problems of generalization, and thus also theorizing. Research results are burdened with considerable subjectivity which can be transformed into inter-subjectivity by using different methods and perspectives.
In the qualitative studies of small family businesses methodological pluralism which allows the creation of mixed research programs can be postulated. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods in one research program may provide important, but not always commensurate results. One can also point to the need for methodological triangulation and therefore the use of different, complementary research methods and techniques that will allow to describe the studied small family company in its entire complexity. The example of duo-ethnography provides the possibility to achieve a high level of relational demands allowing for the creation of unique philosophy of the meeting, a deep entry into the unique history of the studied entity and ownership family and the adoption of prospects for the narrator and an expert person participating in the study.
Łukasz Sułkowski, Andrzej Woźniak and Joanna Sułkowska
Medical Family Businesses in Poland - Model and Managerial Challenges There is a deficit of data in Poland about characteristics of family enterprises providing medical services. The medical sector in Poland faces a rapid development of family businesses and is diverse because it encompasses various size business entities that specialize in many possible aspects of the medical business. The article is about the characteristics of family enterprises providing medical services and extent to which they resemble family businesses, and to which they are derived from medical service activities. The article is of theoretical nature and its aim is to propose the model for the functioning of family-owned medical businesses, taking into account the impact of the type of activity and the family organization. The first part of the article is focuses on characteristics of family businesses, there is relatively little representative research analyzing the share of family enterprises in the Polish economy and describing their character. The second part of the article is the problem of ethos of medical professions in relation to business and economic logics of an organization. In the third of the article part there is a proposal for a model combining both aspects of the functioning of this type of economic entities.
Jerzy Mączyński, Łukasz Sułkowski, Michał Chmielecki and Agnieszka Zajączkowska
The main objective of our research was to compare followers evaluation of Polish middle managers in regard to their traits and behaviors, which are essential for leadership effectiveness, in the years of 2008/2009; 2010/2012; 2012 and during 1996/1997 under the GLOBE research project. As was unexpected, our research results indicate the Polish middle managers under our follow-up study scored significantly lower than their counterparts investigated under the GLOBE study in 1996/1997 on Performance Orientation, Team Orientation, Humane Orientation, Integrity, Visionary and Inspirational Leadership Dimensions, and significantly higher on Autocratic Leadership style. Our findings point to the conclusion that profound changes in political anc socioeconomic systems in Poland, have shown little effects so far on managerial values and subsequent attitudes and behaviors. We postulate that deep changes in peoples' mentality are needed to generate beneficial changes in the societal and organizational values and succeeding attitudes and behaviors.
Mergers are a very important aspect of corporate growth. But so many mergers fail to achieve their aim. A lot of mergers won’t produce value for the acquiring firms. Evidence and surveys have shown that corporate culture is very important for the success of mergers and acquisitions. This evidence also points to the fact that cultural differences are a very important factor that could lead to failures in mergers. Currently there is not much empirical evidence or theory on the importance of cultural differences for the performance of mergers and acquisitions. Though, there is a growing rate of interest in this area.