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Łukasz Mendyk and Przemysław Charzyński

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I) and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II) and totally impervious surface (III). Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates) content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

Open access

Łukasz Mendyk, Marcin Świtoniak, Renata Bednarek and Adam Falkowski

Abstract

Construction and operation of water mills had influenced the transformation of the relief and water conditions, as well as the soil cover around them. The study area includes the former Oleszek mill pond basin, located near the Borówno village, western part of the Chełmińskie Lakeland, about 20 km northeast of Toruń. The objective of the study was to determine the genesis of the soils developed from the Oleszek mill pond basin sediments. Five soil profiles were selected in the basin of the former mill pond, within the 550 m transect located along the Struga Rychnowska river. All of the analysed soils developed from the sediments filling the former mill pond basin. They have been developed as a result of a number of overlapping processes such as mud-forming, alluvial, colluvial and gleyic process. According to the Polish classification system (Classification of Polish Soils 2011) (CPS) two of the soils (profiles 3 and 4) derived from organo-mineral and organic materials are typical organic limnic soils. Systematic position of another two soils (2 and 5) was proposed as muddy soils. Due to the problems of classification of such soils, implementation of the muddy soils or muddy-gleyic soils subtypes (in Polish: gleby mułowate lub mułowato-glejowe) should be considered during developing of the next update of Classification of Polish Soils. These four profiles were classified as Histosols (profiles 3 and 4) and Gleysols (profiles 2 and 5) in WRB (2014). Pedons developed from alluvial materials (alluvial soils in CPS 2011 or Fluvic Phaeozems in WRB 2014) occurred in the proximal part of the basin.

Open access

Łukasz Mendyk, Piotr Hulisz, Grzegorz Kusza, Marcin Świtoniak, Leszek Gersztyn and Barbara Kalisz

Abstract

This paper aims to assess the usefulness of magnetic susceptibility measurements in pedological studies of mill pond sediments. The study area includes the former Turznice mill pond basin located in the south-eastern part of the Grudziądz Basin. Four soil profiles were selected within the transect located along the longitudinal axis of the basin. The following soil properties were determined in the collected samples: bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, content of carbonates, approximate content of organic matter (LOI), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Nt), and the pseudo-total contents of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd). The obtained results were correlated with the specific (mass) magnetic susceptibility (χ). This study revealed that the variability of the soil cover in the basin was driven by different sedimentation conditions. The different composition of natural terrace deposits versus mill pond sediments has been well reflected in the magnetic properties. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that a pedogenic (gleyic) process is the key factor causing the vertical variability of magnetic properties in studied soils.

Open access

Piotr Sewerniak and Łukasz Mendyk

Abstract

The aim of the study was to present the main characteristics of the ‘Glinki’ research area together with results of the first measurements on tree number, density, distribution and species composition carried out in 2011. The research was conducted in a free-of-forest management part of the Toruń military area which is located in one of the biggest inland dune fields of Europe. The ‘Glinki’ research area was established in 2011 and consists of two plots (together 26.3 ha), which are in close proximity to each other. After the last fire in 1991, secondary succession has been the main factor shaping vegetation on both plots. For every plot, the location of all trees of at least 1 m height (560 in plot I and 292 in plot II) was determined. These measurements were subjected to spatial analysis in ArcGIS 9.3 with special emphasis on the exposure of the dune slopes. The main tree species on both plots were Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, and birch, Betula pendula, (82 % and 17 % of all trees respectively). Tree density 20 years after the last fire was very low (32 trees/ha), which mainly resulted from the lack of a sufficient source of seeds in the close vicinity of the plots during the first years after the fire. We also found that tree distribution was related to the main direction of seed inflow and land relief. Tree density was much higher on dune slopes with a northern exposure when compared to other slope exposures, which resulted from different site conditions on the different slopes.

Open access

Maciej Markiewicz, Sławomir S. Gonet, Włodzimierz Marszelewski, Łukasz Mendyk and Marcin Sykuła

Abstract

The aims of the study were to characterize shoreline soil development and evolution and to determine land use changes (19th to 20th centuries) in the direct catchment of the completely vanished Gardeja lake. The study was based on pedological research and analysis of cartographic materials. The main factor determining the current development of shoreline zone soil cover at the former Gardeja lake was human activity (lake dewatering, further drainage and human-induced erosion). Studied soil profiles were developed from mineral, non-lacustrine materials (upper parts of the slopes) and lacustrine sediments covered with colluvium. The analyzed soil catenas are representative for the undulated young glacial landscape of Northern Poland. The biggest changes of the land use were observed for the class of grasslands that is combined with shrubs (increase of cover area).

Open access

Piotr Hulisz, Arkadiusz Krawiec, Sylwia Pindral, Łukasz Mendyk and Kamila Pawlikowska

Abstract

The article presents the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the chemical and physical properties of surface water and groundwater in the area of the city of Inowrocław. It has been shown that the properties of the waters were most strongly affected by the specific geological structure (the city is located within the Zechstein salt dome) as well as the long-term influence of a salt mine and soda plant. The composition of most analysed samples was dominated by Ca2+, Na+ and Cl ions. In places of heavy industrial activity, some water parameters were several time higher than permissible limit values according to Polish standards. It is concluded that, due to the threat to the city’s drinking groundwater resources and fertile soils, the surface water and groundwater in the area in question require permanent monitoring.