The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I) and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II) and totally impervious surface (III). Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates) content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.
Łukasz Mendyk, Piotr Hulisz, Grzegorz Kusza, Marcin Świtoniak, Leszek Gersztyn and Barbara Kalisz
This paper aims to assess the usefulness of magnetic susceptibility measurements in pedological studies of mill pond sediments. The study area includes the former Turznice mill pond basin located in the south-eastern part of the Grudziądz Basin. Four soil profiles were selected within the transect located along the longitudinal axis of the basin. The following soil properties were determined in the collected samples: bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, content of carbonates, approximate content of organic matter (LOI), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Nt), and the pseudo-total contents of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd). The obtained results were correlated with the specific (mass) magnetic susceptibility (χ). This study revealed that the variability of the soil cover in the basin was driven by different sedimentation conditions. The different composition of natural terrace deposits versus mill pond sediments has been well reflected in the magnetic properties. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that a pedogenic (gleyic) process is the key factor causing the vertical variability of magnetic properties in studied soils.
Łukasz Mendyk, Marcin Świtoniak, Renata Bednarek and Adam Falkowski
Construction and operation of water mills had influenced the transformation of the relief and water conditions, as well as the soil cover around them. The study area includes the former Oleszek mill pond basin, located near the Borówno village, western part of the Chełmińskie Lakeland, about 20 km northeast of Toruń. The objective of the study was to determine the genesis of the soils developed from the Oleszek mill pond basin sediments. Five soil profiles were selected in the basin of the former mill pond, within the 550 m transect located along the Struga Rychnowska river. All of the analysed soils developed from the sediments filling the former mill pond basin. They have been developed as a result of a number of overlapping processes such as mud-forming, alluvial, colluvial and gleyic process. According to the Polish classification system (Classification of Polish Soils 2011) (CPS) two of the soils (profiles 3 and 4) derived from organo-mineral and organic materials are typical organic limnic soils. Systematic position of another two soils (2 and 5) was proposed as muddy soils. Due to the problems of classification of such soils, implementation of the muddy soils or muddy-gleyic soils subtypes (in Polish: gleby mułowate lub mułowato-glejowe) should be considered during developing of the next update of Classification of Polish Soils. These four profiles were classified as Histosols (profiles 3 and 4) and Gleysols (profiles 2 and 5) in WRB (2014). Pedons developed from alluvial materials (alluvial soils in CPS 2011 or Fluvic Phaeozems in WRB 2014) occurred in the proximal part of the basin.
Vladimír Šimanský, Martin Juriga and Łukasz Mendyk
An interaction between the slope position and type of soil management practices could be one of the most important factor affecting several soil properties including soil structure. Therefore, we evaluated selected soil properties including soil structure parameters in relation to slope gradient and soil management practices between Trakovice and Bučany villages (western Slovakia). The sampling sites were located in two adjacent, gently sloping fields with a NW-SE orientation. The sites also differ in soil management type: Field No. 1 was used as arable land with intensive cultivation (IC) of crops, while a greening system (GS) had been established on Field No. 2. Soil samples were taken from five geomorphological zones at each slope: summit, shoulder, back-slope, toe slope and flat terrain under the slope. Results showed that soil pH, content of soil organic matter (SOM) and carbonates depended on land use of the slopes. In GS, the water-stable macro-aggregates (WSAma) 0.5–3 mm (favourable size fraction) displayed statistical significant quadratic polynomial trend along the slope gradient. In IC the values of mean weight diameter of dry sieved aggregates (MWDd) decreased significantly along the slope gradient, while in GS the opposite trend was observed. In IC significant correlations between carbonates content (r=-0.775, P<0.01), humic acids (HA) content (r=0.654, P<0.05), colour quotients of humic substances (r=-0.706, P<0.05), colour quotients of HA (r=-0.723, P<0.05) and MWDd were determined. In GS higher content of carbonates was followed by a decrease in content WSAma, MWDd, mean weight diameter of wet sieved aggregates (MWDw) and stability index of aggregates. At the same time stabile and labile soil organic matter improved soil structure parameters in GS.
The aim of the study was to present the main characteristics of the ‘Glinki’ research area together with results of the first measurements on tree number, density, distribution and species composition carried out in 2011. The research was conducted in a free-of-forest management part of the Toruń military area which is located in one of the biggest inland dune fields of Europe. The ‘Glinki’ research area was established in 2011 and consists of two plots (together 26.3 ha), which are in close proximity to each other. After the last fire in 1991, secondary succession has been the main factor shaping vegetation on both plots. For every plot, the location of all trees of at least 1 m height (560 in plot I and 292 in plot II) was determined. These measurements were subjected to spatial analysis in ArcGIS 9.3 with special emphasis on the exposure of the dune slopes. The main tree species on both plots were Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, and birch, Betula pendula, (82 % and 17 % of all trees respectively). Tree density 20 years after the last fire was very low (32 trees/ha), which mainly resulted from the lack of a sufficient source of seeds in the close vicinity of the plots during the first years after the fire. We also found that tree distribution was related to the main direction of seed inflow and land relief. Tree density was much higher on dune slopes with a northern exposure when compared to other slope exposures, which resulted from different site conditions on the different slopes.
The paper aims to assess the land use changes and the dynamics of the landscape pattern of the Grójec Valley in the scope of diverse anthropogenic impacts. The study site is located in the border of the Koło Basin and Kujawy Lakeland, Central Poland. This area was originally covered with wetlands. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been influenced by intensive agricultural use, peat extraction and open-pit mining. The research is based on cartographic materials from 1941, 1981 and 2012. The most relevant finding was that in the first study period (1941–1981) the most common changes in land use (transformation of wetlands into grasslands with shrubs) took place. These were caused mainly by a change in hydrological conditions due to drainage for agricultural use (meadows and pastures) and peat extraction. The study confirmed that these land use changes significantly influenced the landscape structure in each of the analysed parameters (patch density and size, edge, shape and diversity metrics).
Maciej Markiewicz, Sławomir S. Gonet, Włodzimierz Marszelewski, Łukasz Mendyk and Marcin Sykuła
The aims of the study were to characterize shoreline soil development and evolution and to determine land use changes (19th to 20th centuries) in the direct catchment of the completely vanished Gardeja lake. The study was based on pedological research and analysis of cartographic materials. The main factor determining the current development of shoreline zone soil cover at the former Gardeja lake was human activity (lake dewatering, further drainage and human-induced erosion). Studied soil profiles were developed from mineral, non-lacustrine materials (upper parts of the slopes) and lacustrine sediments covered with colluvium. The analyzed soil catenas are representative for the undulated young glacial landscape of Northern Poland. The biggest changes of the land use were observed for the class of grasslands that is combined with shrubs (increase of cover area).
Piotr Hulisz, Arkadiusz Krawiec, Sylwia Pindral, Łukasz Mendyk and Kamila Pawlikowska
The article presents the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the chemical and physical properties of surface water and groundwater in the area of the city of Inowrocław. It has been shown that the properties of the waters were most strongly affected by the specific geological structure (the city is located within the Zechstein salt dome) as well as the long-term influence of a salt mine and soda plant. The composition of most analysed samples was dominated by Ca2+, Na+ and Cl− ions. In places of heavy industrial activity, some water parameters were several time higher than permissible limit values according to Polish standards. It is concluded that, due to the threat to the city’s drinking groundwater resources and fertile soils, the surface water and groundwater in the area in question require permanent monitoring.
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.