This paper aims to assess the usefulness of magnetic susceptibility measurements in pedological studies of mill pond sediments. The study area includes the former Turznice mill pond basin located in the south-eastern part of the Grudziądz Basin. Four soil profiles were selected within the transect located along the longitudinal axis of the basin. The following soil properties were determined in the collected samples: bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, content of carbonates, approximate content of organic matter (LOI), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Nt), and the pseudo-total contents of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd). The obtained results were correlated with the specific (mass) magnetic susceptibility (χ). This study revealed that the variability of the soil cover in the basin was driven by different sedimentation conditions. The different composition of natural terrace deposits versus mill pond sediments has been well reflected in the magnetic properties. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that a pedogenic (gleyic) process is the key factor causing the vertical variability of magnetic properties in studied soils.
The aim of the study was to present the main characteristics of the ‘Glinki’ research area together with results of the first measurements on tree number, density, distribution and species composition carried out in 2011. The research was conducted in a free-of-forest management part of the Toruń military area which is located in one of the biggest inland dune fields of Europe. The ‘Glinki’ research area was established in 2011 and consists of two plots (together 26.3 ha), which are in close proximity to each other. After the last fire in 1991, secondary succession has been the main factor shaping vegetation on both plots. For every plot, the location of all trees of at least 1 m height (560 in plot I and 292 in plot II) was determined. These measurements were subjected to spatial analysis in ArcGIS 9.3 with special emphasis on the exposure of the dune slopes. The main tree species on both plots were Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, and birch, Betula pendula, (82 % and 17 % of all trees respectively). Tree density 20 years after the last fire was very low (32 trees/ha), which mainly resulted from the lack of a sufficient source of seeds in the close vicinity of the plots during the first years after the fire. We also found that tree distribution was related to the main direction of seed inflow and land relief. Tree density was much higher on dune slopes with a northern exposure when compared to other slope exposures, which resulted from different site conditions on the different slopes.
The article presents the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the chemical and physical properties of surface water and groundwater in the area of the city of Inowrocław. It has been shown that the properties of the waters were most strongly affected by the specific geological structure (the city is located within the Zechstein salt dome) as well as the long-term influence of a salt mine and soda plant. The composition of most analysed samples was dominated by Ca2+, Na+ and Cl− ions. In places of heavy industrial activity, some water parameters were several time higher than permissible limit values according to Polish standards. It is concluded that, due to the threat to the city’s drinking groundwater resources and fertile soils, the surface water and groundwater in the area in question require permanent monitoring.
The paper aims to assess the land use changes and the dynamics of the landscape pattern of the Grójec Valley in the scope of diverse anthropogenic impacts. The study site is located in the border of the Koło Basin and Kujawy Lakeland, Central Poland. This area was originally covered with wetlands. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been influenced by intensive agricultural use, peat extraction and open-pit mining. The research is based on cartographic materials from 1941, 1981 and 2012. The most relevant finding was that in the first study period (1941–1981) the most common changes in land use (transformation of wetlands into grasslands with shrubs) took place. These were caused mainly by a change in hydrological conditions due to drainage for agricultural use (meadows and pastures) and peat extraction. The study confirmed that these land use changes significantly influenced the landscape structure in each of the analysed parameters (patch density and size, edge, shape and diversity metrics).