The aim of the research was to evaluate the occurrence of arrhythmias and heart rate variability during diving in recreational divers. Continuous electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter monitoring was conducted in a group of 50 divers (age 36,8 ± 8,7). The recorded data included the duration of the dive, including a period of 60 minutes before the dive and 60 minutes after the dive. Moreover, divers filled in a questionnaire that had been prepared for the purpose of the study and the psychological tests State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The ECG recordings were synchronised with dive computers to correlate the ECG changes with diving events and analysed for the heart rate, arrhythmias and conduction disorders. The average heart rate was the highest (M=107.34 beats/minute) before diving, and the lowest after diving (M = 102.00 beats/minute). Supraventricular arrhythmias were recorded in nineteen (38%) of the participants of the study. The number of arrhythmias during diving (M = 14,45) is significantly higher than before (M = 9,93, p < 0,01) and after dive (M = 6,02, p < 0,05). All results were obtained from the continuous ECG Holter monitoring. It seems that using continuous ECG monitoring in conditions similar to diving (physical and psychological stress), brings more benefits than traditional, resting electrocardiogram.
The aim of the study was to examine cytological changes in the uterus in cows during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, as well as to compare two different methods (brush and flushing) used for cytological material collection and to evaluate their usefulness for monitoring of the endometrium. Ovarian cycle phases were confirmed by ultrasound and by the level of sex hormones (17-β-estradiol and progesterone). The following types of cells were identified in the cytological smears: type I - surface cells; type II - intermediate cells; type III - basal cells; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs); L - lymphocytes. The number of type I and III cells was statistically significantly higher in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase, both in smears prepared using a brush (P<0.001) and by uterine flush (P=0.003). The number of type II cells was statistically significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase in both methods (P<0.001). The results of the study show that phases of the ovarian cycle in cows can be identified based on changes in the quality and percentage of different types of endometrial cells in a cytological examination.
The aim of the study was to evaluate selected parameters representing reproductive system conditions in cows suffering from left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Eighty Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into control (n=40) and LDA (n=40) groups. Haematological and biochemical evaluations were performed in the control group and in cows with LDA before and after surgical treatment. Cytological and ultrasound examinations of the uterus were performed at 21 (baseline), 35 and 63 days after parturition. In the LDA group, significantly decreased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, potassium, glucose and total cholesterol were stated, while aspartate aminotransferase activity, white blood cell count, erythrocyte count, haematocrit, haemoglobin content and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids and bilirubin were increased (all P<0.05). Percentage of neutrophils in the uterus and the uterus diameter were increased in the LDA group at the baseline and at 35 days after parturition (P<0.001). The neutrophil percentage was also increased at 63 days after parturition in the LDA group (P<0.001). Number of days to first oestrus, number of services per conception and calving-to-conception interval were higher in the LDA group (P<0.001). This study has shown reproductive system changes and impaired fertility in dairy cows as the consequence of LDA occurrence. Thus, LDA treatment in cows should be combined with diagnostic evaluation of the uterus and reproductive system to improve reproductive performance. As indicated in the cytological examination, a subclinical inflammatory process may last even 60 days after parturition, leading to substantial impairment of reproductive function in dairy cows.
The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of uterine horn diameter, calcium and magnesium concentrations in blood serum and uterine washings in cows both with and without endometritis. The study was performed on 28 cows at 5, 22 and 42 DP (day post partum), of which 14 cows had been diagnosed with endometritis and the other 14 had no endometritis. The animals were selected based on clinical symptoms and cytological examination. Uterine horn diameter was determined in both examined groups of cows using an ultrasonographic device. The level of calcium and magnesium in the blood serum and uterine washings, and protein in uterine washings was determined using a BS-160 Mindray analyzer. Uterus diameter was similar in both examined groups of cows only at 5 DP, and on subsequent days of examination this parameter was higher in the endometritis group compared to the control (P<0.001). Calcium levels in the blood serum of cows with endometritis were lower than in cows without endometritis, both at 22 DP (P<0.001) and at 42 DP (P=0.004). The levels of calcium, magnesium and total proteins in uterine washings were higher in cows with endometritis compared to the group without endometritis, both at 22 and at 42 DPP (P<0.001). The results of this study confirm that the process of uterine involution is slower in cows with endometritis compared to cows without endometritis, and the myometrium of inflamed uterus does not utilize sufficient amounts of calcium and magnesium, which means that the concentrations of these elements in uterine fluid are higher than in cows without endometritis.
There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.
Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter) in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.
Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6) - experimental males, E2 (n = 6) - experimental females, C1 (n = 6) - control males, and C2 (n = 6) control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.
The paper describes the influence of oral administration of methimazole on biophysical skin parameters. Wistar rats of different sex (220-260 g) were used in the experiment. Biophysical skin parameters, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), corneometry, and pH were examined at seven-day intervals. Significant changes in the parameters were observed on the 7th d of methimazole administration. The changes were observed in both sex but males appeared to be less sensitive in that respect. Changes in the parameters in the females showed rapid mechanisms, which normalised transepidermal water loss and skin hydration, as well as restored skin barrier functions. TEWL, skin hydration, and skin pH measurements allow an early assessment of skin barrier dysfunction after administration of this drug.
The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48) were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75) were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26). When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11). In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71), and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium