The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver). This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.
This paper describes model tests conducted at the Wind Engineering Laboratory of Cracow University of Technology as the first stage of studies on dynamic action on the atmospheric boundary layer in order to reduce the effects of air pollution and smog. It focuses on the cooperation between a series of ventilation towers placed one by one (or row by row) in order to generate a continuous airstream with sufficient velocity to aid the natural ventilation of urban areas. The tests were conducted for three different terrain categories with varying roughness. Also tested were different wind speeds, different spacing between the towers and different configurations of the towers in each row. As a preliminary set of tests, this enabled verification of the feasibility of the solution and its effectiveness on a rough terrain that simulates urban areas.
This paper describes model tests conducted in the Wind Engineering Laboratory of Cracow University of Technology on dynamic action on the atmospheric boundary layer in order to reduce the effects of air pollution and smog in urban areas. The paper focuses on vertical exhaust (ventilation chimney) and cooperation between a concentric system of ventilation towers and a ventilation chimney. The tests were conducted for different shapes and heights of ventilation chimneys, different diameters of the concentric system and different wind speeds provided by the ventilation towers. A heavy smoke visualisation was performed in order to qualitatively evaluate the efficiency of different solutions. The performed tests confirmed a sufficient level of efficiency of cleaning an area where the circular system is located.