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  • Author: Łukasz Bocian x
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The study was conducted at all regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Feed materials were examined for Salmonella prevalence and contamination by Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total plate count, fungi, Clostridium sp., and Bacillus cereus. Assays were done following international and Polish standards used in food and feed microbiology. Salmonella sp. were most often detected in oil seeds. In most of the examined feed ingredients, the number of Enterobacteriaceae did not exceed 10 cfu/g. The contamination by aerobic bacteria ranged most often from 101to 107 cfu/g, and the highest mycological contamination was noted in cereal grains (108 cfu/g). The results showed that microbial contamination of feed materials in regard to Enterobacteriaceae, fungi, and total plate counts declined over the past years.


Inosine pranobex (inosine dimepranol acedoben, isoprinosine) (Inos) is an immunomodulatory and antiviral drug used in some viral infections, especially in patients with weakened immunity. In the present study, effects of Inos on the production of cytokines attributable to Th1 (IL-2, IFN-g, and TNF-a) or Th2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) were tested in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Inos enhanced TNF-a secretion significantly (in short-term - 24-hour, and prolonged term - 72-hour cultures) and IFN-g (in 72-hour cultures). Surprisingly, production of IL-10 by PHA-stimulated lymphocytes was suppressed by Inos in a dose-dependent manner in both 24-hour and 72-hour cultures. These results shed some light on immunomodulatory properties of Inos and suggest applicability of this agent in patients with a depressed function of the immune system.


Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs) are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

Material and Methods: The study involved 40 canine ASGC cases diagnosed in five national veterinary pathology laboratories. The material was processed according to routine histological methods.

Results: Histological types of the tumours involved simple and complex apocrine carcinoma of cystic/papillary (62.5%), solid (15%), and tubular type (12.5%), as well as apocrine ductal carcinoma (10%). The epidemiological analysis revealed peak incidence of the cancer in dogs between 8 and 14 years of age, with the most commonly affected sites being forelimbs and thorax. The highest number of the cancer cases was diagnosed in mixed breed dogs and German Shepherds; no sex predilection was noted.

Conclusion: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report recounting the study on canine malignant apocrine sweat gland tumours in Poland providing detailed phenotypical and histological data, which are otherwise rarely described in veterinary literature. This type of cancer appears to be diagnosed more frequently in dogs than in humans. Being an easily accessible material for research, canine ASGCs might serve as a relevant animal model for studies related to pathogenesis of sweat gland tumours.


Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, skeletal muscle, and bursa of Fabricius samples, collected from broiler chickens, laying hens, fattening pigs, and calves fed genetically modified corn MON 810 and soybean meal MON-40-3-2 (Roundup Ready, RR), was performed The examination showed no significant differences between the control animals fed diets containing no genetically modified feeds and animals fed genetically modified feeds. In some cases, congestion of parenchyma and focal lymphoid cell infiltrations were observed in all dietary groups, including controls, and therefore, it was assumed that the lesions were not associated with the feeding transgenic feeds.