The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in cats in eastern Poland, and to determine the factors associated with the infection.
Material and Methods
PCRs were performed to detect Bartonella DNA in the whole blood of 672 cats from four regions in eastern Poland (the Lublin, Podlasie, Masovian, and Subcarpathian provinces). The association between the previously selected variables and the dependent variable (presence of Bartonella DNA) was investigated using a logistic regression model.
The overall prevalence of infection was 40.48%. All PCR positive cats were infected with B. henselae. The living conditions of the animals (free outdoor roaming), mixed breed cats, Subcarpathian region, and absence of tick control were significant risk factors associated with Bartonella infection at a 95% confidence level.
Cats in eastern Poland appear to be at risk of a bartonellosis epizootic. Factors which seem to impact the likelihood of infection in cats and factors which seem not to impact it have been suggested. We advocate additional research into the ways bartonellosis spreads, its geographical scope, and the factors that favour its development.
Dobermann dogs are reportedly predisposed to familial glomerulonephropathy. Proteinuria is a hallmark of canine familial glomerular diseases. The identification of glomerular abnormalities in breeds so predisposed is of great importance in improving breeding policy. Therefore, markers that allow the detection and localisation of renal damage are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary concentrations of immunoglobulin G (uIgG), retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and Tamm–Horsfall protein (uTHP) in a family of Dobermanns with proteinuria and compare these concentrations with the corresponding values in healthy controls.
Material and Methods
Ten dogs of the Dobermann breed with proteinuria (five with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) of 0.5–1 and five with a UPC >1) and twelve healthy dogs were enrolled. An ELISA was performed to measure uIgG, uRBP, and uTHP, and these proteins were quantified in relation to urinary creatinine (uCrea).
uIgG/uCr and uRBP/uCr were significantly higher in the family of Dobermanns than in the healthy dogs. A significant difference in the uTHP/uCr value was found only in dogs with a UPC of >1.
IgG seems to facilitate the diagnosis of primary hereditary glomerulopathy in Dobermanns. Moreover, in affected dogs, proteinuria characterisation seems to be a promising alternative option for the detection and localisation of renal lesions.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to carry out a genetic analysis of Babesia canis isolates detected in dogs in eastern Poland and to study the correlation of the protozoa variant with a specific geographical region. Material and Methods: PCR was used to identify strains of B. canis from naturally infected animals (240 dogs from four provinces: Mazowieckie, Lublin, Podlasie, and Podkarpacie) by amplifying and sequencing a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Results: Sequencing the PCR products led to the identification of four variants of B. canis. Two previously described protozoa variants (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) were observed in all provinces. Additionally, in the Mazowieckie and Lublin provinces a B. canis variant which contributed to the development of acute or atypical babesiosis was observed. The fourth variant of B. canis was detected only in dogs from the Lublin province, and the course of the disease was subclinical in all dogs infected with this variant. Conclusion: These results indicate the appearance of a new fourth B. canis genotype in Poland and confirm that it is still necessary to study the relationships between the genetic structure of protozoa, geographical distribution of the parasites, and clinical course of the disease.
The aim of this study was to assess the safety of a new vaccine, containing soluble parasitic antigen (SPA), against canine babesiosis. Fifteen dogs were included in the experiment. Five controls received only the adjuvant and 10 dogs were vaccinated with Babesia canis canis SPA twice, at a two weeks interval. For the whole period of the study all animals were under constant clinical observation. Haematological and biochemical tests were performed. Flu-like symptoms and local reactions at the injection site were observed in three animals from the vaccinated group and in two dogs from the control group. These events were transient, receded spontaneously and did not require any appropriate treatment. In 50% of the vaccinated dogs, a slight and spontaneously receding thrombocytopenia developed. However, in none of the animals used in the experiment shock symptoms were observed. Administration of the SPA did not affect the functions of internal organs, which was confirmed by normal results of biochemical tests. The obtained Babesia canis SPA can be considered safe and well tolerated by dogs, and therefore it can be used in further studies on the immunisation of animals against babesiosis.
The prohibition of antibiotic use in edible snails obligates breeders to treat bacterial infections by different means, of which a common one is a bath in Gram-positive– and partially Gram-negative–bactericidal ethacridine lactate solution. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bathing Cornu aspersum Müller snails in a 0.1% aqueous solution of ethacridine lactate on selected physiological parameters of haemolymph.
Material and Methods
The study included 80 snails, divided into two equal groups (study and control). The study group was subjected to bathing in ethacridine lactate and the control group to bathing in tap water. Both groups were treated daily for seven days. The number of haemocytes in the haemolymph, the activity of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases, and the concentration of urea were determined.
In the study group, after exposure to ethacridine lactate solution an increase in ALT activity, changes in the De Ritis ratio, an increase in the amount of haemocytes, and a decrease in body weight were found. No such changes were detected in the control group snails or in animals after the first bath.
Multiple applications of a 0.1% ethacridine lactate bath may adversely affect Cornu aspersum Müller snails.
Changes in selected blood lymphocyte subpopulations in dogs administered with a soluble parasitic antigen (SPA) derived from a supernatant of 18S RNA-A and 18S RNA-B Babesia canis cell culture were investigated. The studies included 20 dogs divided into three groups: group I (n=8) - comprised of dogs receiving SPA twice, at 3 week intervals; group II (n=5) - nonvaccinated control dogs, and group III (n=7) - dogs vaccinated twice with a commercial B. canis vaccine. Cytometric analysis revealed that vaccination with SPA derived from B. canis culture had similar effects to the vaccination with a commercial vaccine. The vaccination lowered the percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3+), T helper cells (CD4+), cytotoxic/supressor T cells (CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD21+), and MHC II lymphocytes in the blood in comparison to non-vaccinated dogs. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that mean values of the tested parameters at each stage of the study were similar in groups I and III and significantly higher in group II. The lowered level of the lymphocyte subpopulations in groups I and III persisted during the whole period of the study. The results presented that SPA has immunosuppressive effect in the first period after being administrated.
The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland). Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.