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Open access

P. Mrva, D. Kottfer and Ł. Kaczmarek

Effect of Shot Peening and NiAl Coating on Fatigue Limit of Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Alloy

The paper deals with an influence of cylic load on fatigue limit of the Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloy without or with the NiAl coating. The fatigue limit was determined for the following three types of specimens of the Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloy: (1) fine-turned specimens; (2) fine-turned specimens with an application of the shot peening process; (3) fine-turned and shot-peened specimens with the NiAl coating deposited by the thermal spraying technique. A standard measurement of the fatigue limit was used for the analytical determination of the Wohler curves (S-N curves). The Wohler curves for the specimens (1) and (3) were in agreement with those presented in literature. The specimens (2) exhibited a lower value of the fatigue limit compared with that of the specimens (1), although the increase of the fatigue limit of the specimens (2) was expected due to the presence of the application of the shot peening process. An analysis of reasons of the decrease of the fatigue limit of the specimens (2) is presented.

Open access

J. Sawicki, M. Dudek, Ł. Kaczmarek, B. Wiecek, B. Swiatczak and B. Olbrycht

For many years, research on carbon films has been stimulated by the need to simultaneously optimize their biological and mechanical properties and by the challenges related to their deposition on medical implants. The residual mechanical stress occurring inside deposited films is the most important mechanical parameter which leads to the total destruction of these films by cracking and peeling. In the present work, we systematically studied the effect of ion bombardment during the process of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) by monitoring the temperature distribution on a cannulated screw using the infrared technique. The obtained experimental and finite element modeling (FEM) results show that stresses in carbon films deposited on a cannulated screw are quite inhomogeneous and depend on the geometry of the sample and the relative position of the studied contact area between the substrate/film interface and the surface of the film.

Open access

N. Kępczak, W. Pawłowski and Ł. Kaczmarek

Abstract

Cast iron and mineral cast are the materials most often used in the machine structural elements design (bodies, housings, machine tools beds etc.). The materials significantly differ in physical and mechanical properties. The ability to suppress vibration is one of the most important factors determining the dynamic properties of the machine and has a significant impact on the machining capabilities of a machine tool. Recent research and development trends show that there is a clear tendency to move away from the traditional iron casting to the mineral casting, due to better dynamic properties of the latter. However mineral cast as a structural material for the whole machine tools bed turns out to be insufficient due to its poor mechanical strength properties. The best solution should benefit from the advantages of the cast iron and mineral cast materials while minimizing their drawbacks. The paper presents numerical modal analysis of two lathe beds: the first one made of gray cast iron and the second one made of hybrid connection of cast iron and mineral cast. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the dynamic properties of two bodies of similar shapes made in the traditional (cast iron) and innovative hybrid (cast iron and mineral cast) technology. In addition, an analysis of the static structure rigidity of the two beds was performed. During the simulation studies it was found a significant increase in dynamic stiffness and static rigidity of the machine tool body made of hybrid connection of cast iron and mineral cast. The results of numerical simulations have confirmed the desirability of using hybrid construction because the dynamic properties of such a body are more advantageous in comparison with the conventional body made of cast iron.

Open access

D. Kottfer, M. Ferdinandy, L. Kaczmarek, P. Trebuňa and P. Hvizdoš

This study investigates the selected properties of the thin Ti coating applied by activated evaporation EB PVD technique. This technique was used for the deposition of Ti thin coating onto inner surface of OKhN3 MFA steel tubes. Deposition process was carried out at temperature 200°C. Conventional type of coatings - monolayer Ti - was analyzed by standard techniques for surface status and quality assessment - coating thickness, chemical composition by EDX analysis, adhesion, hardness, roughness, and growth direction of columns at room temperature. Ti monolayer achieved roughness Ra equal from 0.42 μm to 0.47 μm. The resulting hardness was from 2 GPa to 8.5 GPa depending on the sample location inside the vacuum chamber. Placing of the coated surface also affected the direction of grain growth of Ti coating columns. The angles α of grain growth were found to be from 40° to 60°. Angle α increased two to three times more than the incidence angle β (from 12° to 28°) of evaporated Ti particles. Values of the adhesion measured along the Ti growth direction were mostly higher (up to 10%) or the same as those measured perpendicular to it.

Open access

Ł. Kaczmarek, M. Steglinski, J. Sawicki, J. Swiniarski, D. Batory, K. Kyzioł, Ł. Kołodziejczyk, W. Szymanski, P. Zawadzki and D. Kottfer

This paper describes two stages of optimization of the properties of 2024 and 7075 aluminium alloys, in particular their resistance to pitting by first T6, T6I6 or T6I4 treatment, and second increase its tribological properties by depositing by RF PACVD method a gradient coating of high adhesion to the substrate.

Quantitative microstructural characteristics reveals that it is possible to increase hardness (up to 190HV for 7075 alloy) with relatively high yield strength (520 MPa) and high ultimate elongation (about 20%) by optimizing dispersion of precipitates using two-stage artificial aging process.

Next to eliminate forming of thin Al2O3 layer with relatively poor adhesion to the aluminium substrate, gradient a-C: H/Ti layers synthesis hybrid plasma chemical RF PACVD reactor equipped with pulsed magnetron sputtering system was used. Using such configuration enables forming a thick and highly adherent diamond-like carbon layer on aluminium surface with low coefficient of friction (0.05), at a substrate temperature below 470K. Due to application of Ti magnetron cathode it was possible to improve the adhesion strength up to 30mN of diamond-like carbon layer to the covered substrate. Influence of deposition parameters on microhardness profile as well as adhesion and morphology were determined by nanotest and AFM, respectively.

Open access

M. Stegliński, P. Byczkowska, J. Sawicki, Ł. Kaczmarek, B. Januszewicz and M. Klich

Abstract

An improvement in fatigue strength is one of the main factors enabling the use of high-durability Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys in functional components of mobile robots. As part of this study, a computer simulation was carried out using ANSYS LS-DYNA software that involved the hybridization of high pressure torsion (HPT) and shot peening (SP) forming processes. The numerical analysis was aimed at determining residual stresses and strains that affect the durability and stress characteristics of the analyzed Al alloy. Results of the study indicate that tensile stresses of σ = 300 MPa generated as a result of HPT are transformed into a beneficial stress of σ = 25 MPa resulting from plastic strains caused by SP surface treatment.

Open access

P. Kula, W. Szymański, Ł. Kołodziejczyk, R. Atraszkiewicz, K. Dybowski, J. Grabarczyk, R. Pietrasik, P. Niedzielski, Ł. Kaczmarek and M. Cłapa

In this work, the growth mechanisms of chemical vapor deposited and metallurgical graphene and their selected mechanical and electrical properties were investigated. The study revealed the influence of the growth mechanisms on monoand poly-crystalline nanostructures of synthesized graphene monolayers. The structure of flake boundaries greatly affects both the mechanical and electrical properties. The key factors are overlapping of the graphene flakes, their degree of mismatch and the presence of π type bonds. All of these issues should be taken into account when developing industrially scaled technologies for graphene manufacturing.

Open access

Ł. Kaczmarek, P. Zawadzki, M. Stegliński, R. Wójcik, M. Klich, K. Kyzioł, D. Kottfer, B. Januszewicz and W. Pawłowski

Abstract

The article present the results of the study on the improvement of mechanical properties of the surface layer of 7075 aluminum alloy via two-stage aging combined with shot peening. The experiments proved that thermo-mechanical treatment may significantly improve hardness and stress distribution in the surface layer. Compressive stresses of 226 MPa±5.5 MPa and hardness of 210±2 HV were obtained for selected samples.