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  • Author: Ľ. Laca x
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Primary hepatic yolk sac tumour (YST) is an extremely rare tumour of the liver. The exact etiology of primary hepatic YST is still unclear. This tumour is very aggressive with ability to spread into distant sites, where it can lead to the first clinical presentation. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with fever and pain in the epigastrium, which later on moved to the right hypogastrium clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Ultrasound revealed tumorous mass in the liver and hypoechogenous tumorous mass in the area of right adnexes and terminal ileum. Tumorous mass in the liver was confirmed on the CT scan. Markedly raised levels of serum α-fetoprotein concentration were detected. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed and there was bioptically verified a diagnosis of YST. Afterwards, patient underwent right hemihepatectomy, right hemicolectomy and right adnexectomy. There was found no evidence of the gonadal, mediastinal, retroperitoneal and central nervous system origin of the YST. Histological findings from the liver proved primary yolk sac tumour of the liver with the metastatic spread into the appendix, caecum and regional lymph nodes.


Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, serious parasitic diseases caused by larval stages of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. granulosus has been diagnosed in Slovakia for a long time. Study presents case of 49-years old patient with accidentally diagnosed one big (60 mm) and multiple small (2 - 24 mm) hypoechogenic structures localised in right liver lobe. According to positive serology to E. granulosus antigen and results of imaging examinations the patient was classifi ed as possible case of cystic echinococcosis and treated with mebendazole. Later, due to the worsening of clinical, laboratory and CT fi ndings surgical biopsy was performed and surgical biopsy and subsequent PCR examination of liver tissue confi rmed the diagnosis of alveolar echinococosis. Clinical picture of disease imitating cystic echinococcosis in presented case report, together with results of serological tests confi rmed importance of accurate differential diagnosis of echinococcosis. Each aspect of clinical and laboratory results should be considered responsibly, however, sometimes only molecular techniques can solve the problem of differential diagnosis.


Introduction: Ureteral stenosis is one of the most commonly reported urological complications after kidney transplantation. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the risk factors for ureteral stenosis (type of donor, age of donor, presence of interior polar arteria, unilateral dual transplantation, diabetes mellitus of the recipient and the donor, BK positivity, child recipient, cold ischaemia time, and delayed graft function), as well as the causes and types of treating ureteral stenoses. Results: In the group of 278 patients, the occurrence was 7.2 %. The medial of occurrence of ureteral stenoses was 24.6 months. The independent risk factor for ureteral stenosis in our group was the age of the donor ≥ 70 years [HR 6.5833; 95 % CI 2.2448-19,3070 (P = 0.0006)], BK positivity [HR 13.6667; 95 % CI 6.9127-27.0196 (P<0.0001)], cold ischaemia time > 1080 min [HR 4.0368; 95 % CI 1.7250-9,4465 (P = 0.0013)], and diabetes mellitus in the donor’s history [HR 16.2667; 95 % CI 7.8629-33.6525 (P <0.0001)]. The most frequent type of treating the ureteral stenosis in our group was retroureteroneocystostomy. After surgical treatment, we recorded no recurrence of stenosis. Conclusion: In our analysis, the confirmed independent risk factor was diabetes mellitus of the donor. However, further monitoring and analyses of large groups of patients are necessary. Surgical treatment of ureteral stenosis is safe. However, the most important momentum in surgical treatment of ureteral stenosis still remains the surgeon´s experience in the given type of treatment.


Introduction: Fundoplication is the most frequently used action in the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There are several types of fundoplication. The objective of our study was to identify complications after surgical treatment of GERD.

Material and Methods: We determined several parameters of the monitored and we recorded complications related to surgery: occurrence of surgical, early and late post-surgical complications.

Results: 52 patients (24 men and 28 women) with an average age of 53.3 years were included. The most frequently chosen type of fundoplication was Nissen-Rossetti. The most frequently occurring subjective post-surgery difficulties were temporal dysphagia (11.5%), sensation of nausea and vomiting after eating (3.8 %), pain in the surgical wound, and dyspnoea occurring in all patients after thoracotomy. Early post-surgery complication developed in 6 patients (11.5 %)

Conclusion: Occurrence of complications in the group monitored by us was up to 11.5 % and perioperative mortality was 0 %. Hiatal hernia is frequently found in patients with GERD and it is considered to be one of the major causes for the development of this disease.


Background: Chronic kidney disease represents a world-wide health problem affecting approximately 195 million women around the world. Risk of development of chronic kidney disease is greater in women; therefore, the World Kidney Day 2018 was dedicated to kidney disease, treatment options, and its specifics in female patients.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 1,457 patients after kidney transplantation from all transplant centres in Slovakia over a period of ten years from 2005 – 2015.The parameters taken into account were cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), outcome of transplantation in a context of differences between the genders.

Results: During the ten-year period there were 557 transplanted women vs. 900 men. Among female recipient the dominant cause of ESRD was tubulointerstitial nephritis (males 22.3% vs. females 32.1%, p < 0.0001), other causes of ESRD where females were significantly more represented than men included polycystic kidney disease (males 11.6% vs. females 17.6%, p = 0.0013) and systemic lupus erythematosus (males 0.2% vs. females 2.3 %, p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in 12-month, 5-year, and 10-year both graft and patient survival rates between men and women. Female recipients wait for kidney transplantation significantly longer in spite of comparable time spent on dialysis (males 32.9 months vs. females 39.4 months, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Despite comparable patient and graft survival rates in male and female recipients in our study there are other studies showing that gender as well as gender mismatch significantly influence the outcomes of transplantation.


Purpose: Cigarette smoking has adverse effects on kidney transplant recipients, causing cardiovascular disease, kidney function impairment, and cancer. New onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) represents serious complication of transplantation of solid organs.

Methods: In the group of 252 patients after kidney transplantation, we identified smokers and current non-smokers (the patient who has not been smoking or who is ex smoker) for the period of minimum 24 months. In the monitored period of 12 months after transplantation, we detected presence of NODAT in both groups. The group contained only those patients who did not have diabetes mellitus (of type 1 and 2) at the time of kidney transplantation.

Results: The group of smokers was composed of 88 patients (34.9 %) and non-smokers 164 patients (65.1 %). The average age of smokers was 52 years ± 12.4, and of current non-smokers it was 44.8 years ± 12.8 (P < 0.0001). The smokers had significantly lower body mass index (BMI) at the time of kidney transplantation (P = 0.0059) and also 12 months after transplantation (P = 0.0069), lower weight gain 12 months after transplantation (P = 0.0220) and larger waist circumference 12 months after transplantation (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: In our group, smoking had no effect on development of NODAT, the smokers had lower values of BMI and waist circumference, however, the guideline development group feels that, as for the general population, success of smoking cessation can be enhanced by offering structured smoking cessation programs.