Monta Madelāne, Angelika Krūmiņa, Raimonds Sīmanis, Ģirts Šķenders, Andrejs Ivanovs, Gunta Stūre and Ludmila Vīksna
Immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is driven by microbial translocation and in HIV patients is one of the contributors to faster progression of liver disease along with increased cell apoptosis. The aim of the study was to compare microbial translocation and apoptosis markers in HIV monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, depending on HIV immune status and antiretroviral treatment (ART). We analysed data for 78 HIV monoinfected and 105 HIV/HCV coinfected patients from the Rīga East University Hospital. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), endotoxin core antibodies (EndoCAb), cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and cyto-chrome c (Cyt-c) levels were measured. No significant difference in LPS, EndoCAb, Cyt-c levels between HIV and HIV/HCV patients was found. The CK18 level was higher in the HIV/HCV group. Correlation between CD4+ cell count and EndoCAb antibodies was found in HCV positive patients. There was a significant effect of ART on markers for EndoCAb IgA and EndoCAb IgM antibodies in the HIV monoinfected group. Correlation between CD4+ cell count and EndoCAb antibodies and LPS was found in HIV/HCV patients on ART. Coinfection with HCV can lead to more pronounced response in EndoCAb antibody production and higher levels of cell apoptosis markers, despite similar LPS levels. ART has a positive effect on immune activation.
Iveta Ozere, Ģirts Skenders, Iveta Līduma, Olga Bobrikova, Zita Lauska, Anita Skangale, Anita Jagmane, Vita Kalniņa and Vaira Leimane
Using of T-Spot.TB and Mantoux tests in diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in BCG vaccinated children aged five and younger
Infection with M. tuberculosis (MT) is difficult to diagnose in young BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccinated children using Mantoux test alone, as a positive test result may be due to infection with MT and previous BCG vaccination. We aimed to test the T-SPOT. TB test for BCG-vaccinated children aged five and younger in two groups — with or without contact with an active tuberculosis (ATB) patient. Prospectively a study group of 121 children (having contact with ATB patient) and a control group of 64 children (without known contact with ATB patient) were examined using Mantoux and T-SPOT. TB tests. The T-SPOT. TB test was positive in 66 (54.5%) study group children and in 2 (3.1%) control group children (P < 0.01). Induration in the Mantoux test ≥ 10 mm was observed in 62 (91.0%) of 68 T-SPOT. TB positive children, and 34 (29.1%) of 117 T-SPOT. TB negative children (P < 0.01). In the group with a negative T-SPOT. TB result boosting of the Mantoux test was observed in 21 (66%) of 32 children who had received repeated Mantoux testing before being included in the study. According to the results, the application of the T-SPOT. TB test is reasonable for primary contact children evaluation and follow-up contact children for whom primary tests did not confirm infection with MT.