Radislava Teodorović, Vladimir Drašković, Spomenka Đurić, Kartarina Nenadović, Milorad Mirilović and Ljiljana Janković
In this investigation, the genotoxic properties of mestranol were examined in vitro. Human lymphocyte cultures were exposed for 72 h to mestranol at concentrations of 7.5, 15 and 30 µg/g. The genotoxic effects of the chemosterilant were assessed by numerical and structural chromosome aberrations.
Mestranol induced certain genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes. There was a dose-dependent significant (p<0.01) increase in the number of numerical aberrations in comparison to the control, but without significant differences (p>0.05) between the doses applied. Further, structural aberrations increased significantly (p<0.01) in the presence of mestranol, being most frequent in cultures exposed to the highest mestranol dose.
The frequency of Robertsonian translocations increased significantly only in cultures treated with mestranol at concentration of 30 µg/g in comparison both with the control (p<0.01) and the lowest chemosterilant dose (p<0.01).
There were significant differences (p<0.01) in the levels of chromosome gaps and fragments compared to Robertsonian translocations, whilst the frequencies between gaps and fragments were not significantly different (p>0.05).
Spomenka Đurić, Milorad Mirilović, Vladimir Magaš, Dragan Bacić, Zoran Stanimirović, Slobodan Stanojević and Slavoljub Stanojević
Bluetongue disease is an infectious non-contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants, transmitted by hematophagous insects of the genus Culicoides. In endemic areas the disease has a seasonal character, occurs usually in summer when the population of vectors is at its peak. Culicoides are active at temperatures in the range from 13oto 35oC. The replication of the virus stops when the environmental temperature is below 13oC. It has been reported that the temperature and humidity of the environment affect to a great extent the biology of the vector and the survival of the virus in the reservoirs. During the summer, the number of infected cattle and sheep is directly dependent on the density of the population of the vector, the length of vectors’ life-span, the temperature of the environment and by precipitation, the affi nity of the vector to different hosts, and the ability of the vector to locate the host. Bluetongue has been spreading worldwide due to climatic changes and increasing average daily temperatures. The seasonal occurrences of the disease and the climate change have conditioned the need for adopting new strategies. The stochastic SEIRD mathematical model has been developed in order to simulate the transmission of the Bluetongue virus through the susceptible ruminant population on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, as well as to investigate the effect of climatic factors on the vector population and the magnitude of a possible epizootia. Besides the effects of climatic factors, we have analyzed a number of different approaches in the control of the disease based upon the vaccination of ruminants and control of vectors.
Honey bee mite Varroa destructor and microsporidium Nosema ceranae are currently considered the most important threats to honey bees and beekeeping. It has been believed that both N. apis and N. ceranae invade exclusively epithelial cells of the honey bee ventriculus. However, some fi ndings suggest that these microsporidia may infect other tissues of honey bees. There are indications that these pathogens could be found in honey bee haemolymph, as the medium for its distribution to anatomically distant tissues. Knowing that V. destructor being an ectoparasitic mite feeds on the honey bee’s haemolymph, the aim of this study was to investigate if DNA of Nosema spp. microsporidia could be found in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor.
The study was conducted on bee haemolymph and V. destructor mites from 44 Apis mellifera colonies. From each hive five mite individuals and 10 μL of haemolymph (from 4-5 bees) were used as samples for DNA isolation and PCR detection of Nosema spp.
The DNA of N. ceranae was confi rmed in 61.36% of V. destructor mites and 68.18% of haemolymph samples. This is the first report of N. ceranae DNA in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor mites. The finding of DNA of N. ceranae in V. destructor could be interpreted as the result of mite feeding on N. ceranae infected bee haemolymph. However, for a full confi rmation of the vector role of V. destructor in spreading of nosemosis, further microscopy investigations are required for the detection of spores in both investigated matrices (haemolymph and V. destructor internal tissues).
Bojan Lukač, Aleksandra Knežević, Nenad Milić, Dejan Krnjaić, Ljubiša Veljović, Vesna Milićević, Andrea Zorić, Spomenka Đurić, Maja Stanojević and Jakov Nišavić
The presence of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus was examined in forty clinical samples of spleen, lymph nodes and lungs originating from non-vaccinated swine by polymerase chain reaction. All animals were reared in extensive livestock farming systems in different geographical districts of Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Porcine circovirus 2 DNA was detected in four lymph node and two spleen samples (15%), while porcine parvovirus DNA was identified in five lymph node samples (12.5%). The presence of both viruses was detected in three lymph node samples (7.5%). Partial nucleotide sequence of ORF1 gene of 2 porcine circovirus 2 and VP2 gene of 2 porcine parvovirus isolates was determined. The nucleotide sequences of two PCV2 isolates from RS-BIH included in phylogenetic typing are similar and cluster together with the strain Mantova isolated from domestic pigs in Italy, strains DE006-14 and DE222-13 isolated from pigs in Germany as well as with the strain Jvnan isolated from pigs in China. Also, analyzed PCV2 isolates were partially similar to the strain NIV-C SRB isolated from pigs in Serbia. The nucleotide sequences of two PPV isolates that were included in phylogenetic typing showed a high level of similarity with the strain Challenge isolated from pigs in UK, strain Kresse isolated from pigs in USA and strains 77 and LZ isolated from pigs in China.