There is growing need for synthetic tissue replacement materials designed in a way that mimic complex structure of tissues and organs. Among various methods for fabrication of implants (scaffolds), 3D printing is very powerful technique because it enables creation of scaffolds with complex internal structures and high resolution, based on medical data sets. This method allows fabrication of scaffolds with desired macro- and micro-porosity and fully interconnected pore network. Rapid development of 3D printing technologies has enabled various applications from the creation of anatomical training models for complex surgical procedures to the printing of tissue engineering constructs. The aim of current investigations was to develop compatible printers and materials (bioinks) to obtain biomimetic scaffolds, which allow printing of living cells without significant loss of cell viability. The advanced level of such printing assumes “in situ” printing, i.e. printing cells and biomaterials directly onto or in a patient that will reduce recovery time.