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  • Author: Özlem Özmen x
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Retrobulbar Fibrosarcoma in a Sheep


This report describes a case of a retrobulbar fibrosarcoma in a 4-year-old female sheep. A big tumor was protruding from the orbit but not invading the surrounding tissue and was easily removed surgically. The grayish colored mass was 19×13×8 cm in size and hard. The surface of the tumor was irregular and ulcerated. Marked hemorrhage and necrotic areas were present across the whitish cut surface. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of spindle shaped, anaplastic pleomorphic cells. Masson’s trichrome staining revealed a collagenous matrix in the tissue. Immunohistochemically, the mass was positive for vimentin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen but negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin, glial fibrilar acidic protein and S100 protein antibodies. According to histopathological and immunohistochemical findings the tumor was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of ocular fibrosarcoma in a sheep.

Open access
Investigation of the Effects of Artemisinin on Testis and Kidney Injury Induced by Doxorubicin


Artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, has anticancer activity and possesses protective effects against several tissue injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of artemisinin on doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Doxorubicin was administered to rats at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) as a single intraperitoneal injection. Application of artemisinin was by using oral gavage feeding needle for 14 days at different specified doses (7 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg b.w.). At the end of the experiments, kidney and testis samples were collected and used for histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. At histopathological examination, while hyperemia was the marked finding in kidney and testis of rats treated with doxorubicin only, no evidence of structural abnormalities showed in other groups. Immunohistochemical examination of the testes and kidneys demonstrated significantly increased expression of caspase-3, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB in rats treated with doxorubicin only. Artemisinin decreased the doxorubicin-induced overexpression of NF-κB, iNOS, TNFα and caspase-3 in these tissues of rats. Artemisinin can protect the kidney and testis against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity and testotoxicity, probably through a decrease of caspase-3, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB expressions. It may be concluded that artemisinin has a potential for clinical use in the treatment of kidney and testis damage induced by doxorubicin. Further researches are required to determine the appropriate combination of artemisinin with doxorubicin.

Open access
Prognosis estimation under the light of metabolic tumor parameters on initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with primary extranodal lymphoma



Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study.

Patients and methods

There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging. Quantitative PET/CT parameters: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were used to estimate disease-free survival and overall survival.


SUVmean, MTV and TLG were found statistically significant after multivariate analysis. SUVmean remained significant after ROC curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as 88% and 64%, respectively, when the cut-off value of SUVmean was chosen as 5.15. After the investigation of primary presentation sites and histo-pathological variants according to recurrence, there is no difference amongst the variants. Primary site of extranodal lymphomas however, is statistically important (p = 0.014). Testis and central nervous system lymphomas have higher recurrence rate (62.5%, 73%, respectively).


High SUVmean, MTV and TLG values obtained from primary staging FDG-PET/CT are potential risk factors for both disease-free survival and overall survival in primary extranodal lymphoma. SUVmean is the most significant one amongst them for estimating recurrence/metastasis.

Open access