For more than 30 years the delivery of local public services has been undergoing change, from a style of delivery dominated by the public sector to a more efficient, more effective mixed system, characterised by variations in ownership and sources of financing. Concepts such as public-private-civil sector mix, partnerships, co-operation, and co-creation have emerged as ways of organising public-services production and delivery. Our case deals with co-production via the involvement of the third sector in welfare services. The goal of this paper is to map the real relations between public bodies and the non-governmental sector in the co-production of welfare services in two newer EU member countries – Hungary and Slovakia. The information obtained suggests that the examples of good practice exist, but at a global level the quality of partnership between the government and the non-governmental sector is problematic. The study also highlights important drivers and barriers determining the quality of collaboration and the results of projects – limited resources (mostly financial) to implement collaborative welfare innovations on both sides seem to be the core barrier.
This article describes the concepts and approaches to Cultural Opposition used by the COURAGE project (funded by the European Commission within the Horizon 2020 programme). It examines how can the legacy of Cultural Opposition be analyzed from the perspective of the cultural heritage and collections and what are the promises of the Cultural Opposition term for the emergence of new possibilities in the historiography of the Communist Era. This article argues that the use of cultural heritage of the socialist Cultural Opposition is strongly linked to the history and trajectory of the Cultural Opposition collections, and that the analysis of the collections story offers a clearer understanding of the post-communist transformation from a different point of view.
Objective: The present work offers a fast, reliable and easy UV spectrophotometric method for the assay of strontium ranelate from bulk samples and pharmaceutical dosage form.
Methods: The proposed method uses 0.1% V/V trichloroacetic acid as dissolution medium for spectrophotometric analysis, by signal detection at 321 nm. The method was validated according to the currently in-force international guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection and quantification.
Results: The method was found to be linear in the range of 5-100 µg mL-1 (R2 > 0.999). Method accuracy was found in-between 98.87-100.41%, showing good linear correlation as well (R2 = 0.9997). The concentrations for limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found 1.13 µg mL-1 and 3.77 µg mL-1, resp. The proposed method showed good intra- and interday precision, with low RSD values of 0.53-1.24% and 1.11%, resp.
Conclusions: Stability studies performed by both HPLC and UV spectrophotometric methods revealed that the active substance is highly susceptible to acidic hydrolysis, oxidation and exposure to high temperature.
A reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was developed for strontium ranelate using a full factorial, screening experimental design. The analytical procedure was validated according to international guidelines for linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. A separate experimental design was used to demonstrate the robustness of the method. Strontium ranelate was eluted at 4.4 minutes and showed no interference with the excipients used in the formulation, at 321 nm. The method is linear in the range of 20–320 μg mL−1 (R2 = 0.99998). Recovery, tested in the range of 40–120 μg mL−1, was found to be 96.1–102.1 %. Intra-day and intermediate precision RSDs ranged from 1.0–1.4 and 1.2–1.4 %, resp. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.06 and 0.20 μg mL−1, resp. The proposed technique is fast, cost-effective, reliable and reproducible, and is proposed for the routine analysis of strontium ranelate.
Depositional sequences originating in semi-enclosed basins with endemic biota, partly or completely isolated from the open ocean, frequently do not allow biostratigraphic correlations with the standard geological time scale (GTS). The Miocene stages of the Central Paratethys represent regional chronostratigraphic units that were defined in type sections mostly on the basis of biostratigraphic criteria. The lack of accurate dating makes correlation within and between basins of this area and at global scales difficult. Although new geochronological estimates increasingly constrain the age of stage boundaries in the Paratethys, such estimates can be misleading if they do not account for diachronous boundaries between lithostratigraphic formations and for forward smearing of first appearances of index species (Signor-Lipps effect), and if they are extrapolated to whole basins. Here, we argue that (1) geochronological estimates of stage boundaries need to be based on sections with high completeness and high sediment accumulation rates, and (2) that the boundaries should preferentially correspond to conditions with sufficient marine connectivity between the Paratethys and the open ocean. The differences between the timing of origination of a given species in the source area and timing of its immigration to the Paratethys basins should be minimized during such intervals. Here, we draw attention to the definition of the Central Paratethys regional time scale, its modifications, and its present-day validity. We suggest that the regional time scale should be adjusted so that stage boundaries reflect local and regional geodynamic processes as well as the opening and closing of marine gateways. The role of eustatic sea level changes and geodynamic processes in determining the gateway formation needs to be rigorously evaluated with geochronological data and spatially-explicit biostratigraphic data so that their effects can be disentangled.
The Ratkovce 1 well, drilled in the Blatné depocenter of the northern Danube Basin penetrated the Miocene sedimentary record with a total thickness of 2000 m. Biostratigraphically, the NN4, NN5 and NN6 Zones of calcareous nannoplankton were documented; CPN7 and CPN8 foraminifer Zones (N9, 10, 11 of the global foraminiferal zonation; and MMi4a; MMi5 and MMi6 of the Mediterranean foraminiferal zonation were recognized. Sedimentology was based on description of well core material, and together with SP and RT logs, used to characterize paleoenvironmental conditions of the deposition. Five sedimentary facies were reconstructed: (1) fan-delta to onshore environment which developed during the Lower Badenian; (2) followed by the Lower Badenian proximal slope gravity currents sediments; (3) distal slope turbidites were deposited in the Lower and Upper Badenian; (4) at the very end of the Upper Badenian and during the Sarmatian a coastal plain of normal marine to brackish environment developed; (5) sedimentation finished with the Pannonian-Pliocene shallow lacustrine to alluvial plain deposits. The provenance analysis records that the sediment of the well-cores was derived from crystalline basement granitoides and gneisses and from the Permian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary cover and nappe units of the Western Carpathians and the Eastern Alps. Moreover, the Lower Badenian volcanism was an important source of sediments in the lower part of the sequence.