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  • Author: Árpád Török x
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This paper explains the most important methodological steps of introducing a new speed management strategy. The development of a speed monitoring system with a long term effect on the progress of road safety, makes it necessary to identify its strategic goals, main functions and system components. The strategy should investigate current speed management methods, regulation framework of road signs, tendencies represented by statistics, enforcement campaigns, control equipment, and last but not least the penalty system. Assessment of the applied speed enforcement practices and framework should involve the revision of the recently operating institutional, legal and technical framework of speed enforcement structure.


The paper deals with the issue of sensitivity analysis and its possible use in price formation in passenger road transport. The input variables are selected on the model example. Based on the calculation, the sensitivity of the output to these input variables is determined, and the question how these inputs affect the overall result is answered.


This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.


Objective: To evaluate and compare laparoscopic and conventional open rectum amputation procedures using clinical, intraoperative, postoperative, and oncological criteria.

Methods: Fifty-nine patients with lower rectal and anorectal cancer were included in a retrospective study, conducted between 2014 and 2017. Patients underwent open or laparoscopic rectum amputation surgery and were divided into two groups: group 1 – laparoscopic amputation group (LAG) and group 2 – open amputation group (OAG). The clinical, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes and oncological results were compared between the two groups.

Results: We found a significantly smaller intraoperative blood loss (325 mL vs. 538.29 mL, p = 0.0002), earlier return of bowel motility (2.41 days vs. 3.10 days, p = 0.036), shorter hospital stays (10.08 days vs. 12.66 days, p = 0.03), and a higher number of lymph nodes removed during surgery (12.33 nodes for LAG vs. 9.98 nodes for OAG, p = 0.049). In the open surgery group we found shorter durations of surgery (199.58 minutes for LAG vs. 157.87 minutes for OAG, p = 0.0046).

Conclusion: Laparoscopic rectum amputation is a technically demanding procedure. The present study demonstrates the benefits and disadvantages of this surgery, with comparable clinical, intraoperative, postoperative, and oncological results compared to the conventional open rectum amputation procedure.



Despite recent advancements in antibiotic therapy and the progress made in critical care and modern diagnostic methods, acute mediastinitis continues to be a severe condition.

Diagnosis and treatment

Acute mediastinitis can occur in the context of cardio-thoracic surgery, oesophageal perforations and oropharyngeal infections condition. Forty-five percent of oesophageal perforations occurs during simple endoscopy. Spontaneous perforation (Boerhaave syndrome) accounts for 15% of perforations, and twelve percent are due to the ingestion of foreign bodies. Other causes include blind or penetrating trauma, and circa 9% to intraoperative lesions. CT scan is the standard investigation that reveals direct signs of mediastinitis.

The oral administration of contrast substances can underscore the level of oesophageal perforation. Conservative treatment is the first-choice treatment and surgical treatment is reserved only for specific situations.

The principles of surgical treatment consist of drainage, primary suture, oesophageal exclusion with or without the application of oesophagectomy, endoscopic vacuum wound assisted therapy of the perforation and associated paraoesophageal mediastinal drainage and endoscopic stenting associated with drainage.


The lowest mortality rate is recorded in patients with perforations diagnosed less than twenty-four hours after the onset of symptoms. Surgical treatment remains the gold standard especially in cases of thoracic and abdominal perforations while further investigations are mandatory before endoscopic stenting is carried out.


Left sided gallbladder is a rare anomaly that is often associated with other abnormal anatomy in the hepatobiliary system. One left positioned gallbladder was found in a consecutive series of 3290 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease in the Mure County Emergency Hospital’s 2nd Surgery Clinic between 2005 and 2015, a prevalence of 0.03 per cent. In case of left sided gallbladder the cystic artery always crosses in front of the common bile duct from right to left. The cystic duct may open on the left or right side of the common hepatic duct. Anterograde cholecystectomy is the best choice for precise exploration of the cystic duct and cystic artery.


As highly automated and autonomous vehicles (AVs) become more and more widespread, inducing the change of traffic dynamics, significant changes occur in traditional traffic control. So far, automotive testing has been done mostly in real-world or pure virtual simulation environment. However, this practice is quite obsolete as testing in real traffic conditions can be quite costly, moreover purely simulation based testing might be inadequate for specific goals. Accordingly, a hybrid concept of the Vehicle-inthe-Loop (ViL) was born recently, in accordance with the Hardware-in-the-Loop concept, i.e. in the ViL concept the vehicle is the 'hardware' within the simulation loop. Furthermore, due to the development of software capabilities, a novel approach, the Scenarioin-the-Loop (SciL) concept evolves based on the ViL approach. The paper defines the main purposes and conditions related to implementing ViL and SciL concepts from the perspective of traffic simulation and traffic control.


Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the factors associated with increased mortality in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia, emphasizing the importance of an early diagnosis and a prompt surgical intervention in order to avoid lesion progression. Materials and method: A retrospective analytical study was conducted on a study population of 50 male and female patients with acute ischemia of the mesenteric arteries, aged between 36-92 years. Demographic and pathological history characteristics were assessed, together with presented symptoms, laboratory and CT findings, as well as surgical outcome and time-related aspects between presentation in the emergency department and time of surgery, as well as the hospitalization period until discharge or death. Results: Muscular defense (OR = 23.05) and shock (OR = 13.24) as symptoms were strongly associated with a poor prognosis, while elevated values of lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.0440) and creatine kinase (p = 0.0025) were associated with higher death rates. The time elapsed during investigations in the emergency room was significantly higher in patients who deceased (p = 0.0023), similarly to the total time from the onset of symptoms to the beginning of surgery (p = 0.0032). Surgical outcomes showed that patients with segmental ischemia of the small bowel had significantly higher chances of survival (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Increased mortality rates in patients presenting in the emergency department for acute mesenteric ischemia were observed in patients with occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, with higher levels of CK and LDH, as well as with longer periods of stay in the emergency department for diagnostic procedures until the commencement of the surgical intervention. Therefore, proper investigations in a timely manner followed by a specific and prompt surgical intervention may avoid unfavorable evolution of patients towards death.


Introduction. Smoking is an important public health issue nowadays. It causes a lot of diseases and represents also a source of carcinogenic substances. Recent studies showed an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in smokers. The aim of our study is to assess the association between smoking and colorectal cancer and to establish the prevalence of heavy smokers among the patients operated on for colorectal cancer.

Methodology. We run a retrospective study of the charts belonging to the patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and operated on in our department between 2004 and 2013. The patients were classified in smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. The amount of tobacco was evaluated according to the number of smoked cigarettes per day, the smoking period, respectively the pack-years. The data were corroborated with the location of the tumor and analyzed using the online version of Graphpad.

Results. From 982 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, we found 297 smokers (30.24%). Among these, 106 patients (35.69%) have smoked for over 30 years, at least 20 cigarettes per day, more than 30 pack-years. The number of heavy smokers was significantly greater (p=0.0001) in the group with rectal cancer compared to the group with colon cancer. The association of smoking with rectal cancer was also important (p=0.0015) among the former smokers.

Conclusions. Smoking is related to higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Our data sustain the hypothesis of increased risk of developing rectal cancer in heavy smokers. We recommend the screening for colorectal cancer among the heavy smoker population.


Bouveret's syndrome is a high mechanical obstruction due to impaction of a gallstone into the duodenum, through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. It belongs to a larger group of gallstone ileus, a disease which occurs after developing a fistula between the gallbladder and the gastrointestinal tract. This is a rare complication of gallstones but because it appears in elderly people, it has a high morbidity and mortality. Patients have various symptoms and the treatment is individualized. We present here a case of a 67 years old patient, admitted in emergency, presenting symptoms of high bowel obstruction, with onset 5 days before admission. Abdominal ultrasound reveals a 5 cm stone that seems to be in the gallbladder, gastric stasis and at gastroscopy appears a foreign body impacted in the duodenum. After a short preparation the patient underwent surgery. We found a dilated stomach and a large cholecystoduodenal fistula with an impacted gallstone in the duodenum. We performed one stage surgery: cholecystectomy, extraction of the stone and suturing of the fistula. We reestablished the continuity of the intestinal tract. We performed also an ileostomy for feeding the patient and protecting the anastomoses. The postoperative evolution was favorable.

We consider that one stage surgical treatment in gallstone ileus is an option, if the patient is in good condition and we have an adequate postoperative intensive care management.