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Árpád Török

Abstract

This paper explains the most important methodological steps of introducing a new speed management strategy. The development of a speed monitoring system with a long term effect on the progress of road safety, makes it necessary to identify its strategic goals, main functions and system components. The strategy should investigate current speed management methods, regulation framework of road signs, tendencies represented by statistics, enforcement campaigns, control equipment, and last but not least the penalty system. Assessment of the applied speed enforcement practices and framework should involve the revision of the recently operating institutional, legal and technical framework of speed enforcement structure.

Open access

Jindřich Ježek, Jiří Nožička and Árpád Török

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of sensitivity analysis and its possible use in price formation in passenger road transport. The input variables are selected on the model example. Based on the calculation, the sensitivity of the output to these input variables is determined, and the question how these inputs affect the overall result is answered.

Open access

Adam Torok, Arpad Torok and Florian Heinitz

Abstract

This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

Open access

Török Árpád, Kantor Tibor, Borz Cristian, Márton István Dénes and Mureșan Mircea

Abstract

Left sided gallbladder is a rare anomaly that is often associated with other abnormal anatomy in the hepatobiliary system. One left positioned gallbladder was found in a consecutive series of 3290 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease in the Mure County Emergency Hospital’s 2nd Surgery Clinic between 2005 and 2015, a prevalence of 0.03 per cent. In case of left sided gallbladder the cystic artery always crosses in front of the common bile duct from right to left. The cystic duct may open on the left or right side of the common hepatic duct. Anterograde cholecystectomy is the best choice for precise exploration of the cystic duct and cystic artery.

Open access

Márton István Dénes, Árpád Török, Etele Éltes, Levente Kucserik, Zsolt András, Bogdan Borz and Cristian Borz

Abstract

Bouveret's syndrome is a high mechanical obstruction due to impaction of a gallstone into the duodenum, through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. It belongs to a larger group of gallstone ileus, a disease which occurs after developing a fistula between the gallbladder and the gastrointestinal tract. This is a rare complication of gallstones but because it appears in elderly people, it has a high morbidity and mortality. Patients have various symptoms and the treatment is individualized. We present here a case of a 67 years old patient, admitted in emergency, presenting symptoms of high bowel obstruction, with onset 5 days before admission. Abdominal ultrasound reveals a 5 cm stone that seems to be in the gallbladder, gastric stasis and at gastroscopy appears a foreign body impacted in the duodenum. After a short preparation the patient underwent surgery. We found a dilated stomach and a large cholecystoduodenal fistula with an impacted gallstone in the duodenum. We performed one stage surgery: cholecystectomy, extraction of the stone and suturing of the fistula. We reestablished the continuity of the intestinal tract. We performed also an ileostomy for feeding the patient and protecting the anastomoses. The postoperative evolution was favorable.

We consider that one stage surgical treatment in gallstone ileus is an option, if the patient is in good condition and we have an adequate postoperative intensive care management.

Open access

Márton István Dénes, Cristian Borz, Árpád Török, Tibor Kántor, Valentin Nădășan, Mónika Csibi and Zoltán Ábrám

Abstract

Introduction. Smoking is an important public health issue nowadays. It causes a lot of diseases and represents also a source of carcinogenic substances. Recent studies showed an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in smokers. The aim of our study is to assess the association between smoking and colorectal cancer and to establish the prevalence of heavy smokers among the patients operated on for colorectal cancer.

Methodology. We run a retrospective study of the charts belonging to the patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and operated on in our department between 2004 and 2013. The patients were classified in smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. The amount of tobacco was evaluated according to the number of smoked cigarettes per day, the smoking period, respectively the pack-years. The data were corroborated with the location of the tumor and analyzed using the online version of Graphpad.

Results. From 982 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, we found 297 smokers (30.24%). Among these, 106 patients (35.69%) have smoked for over 30 years, at least 20 cigarettes per day, more than 30 pack-years. The number of heavy smokers was significantly greater (p=0.0001) in the group with rectal cancer compared to the group with colon cancer. The association of smoking with rectal cancer was also important (p=0.0015) among the former smokers.

Conclusions. Smoking is related to higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Our data sustain the hypothesis of increased risk of developing rectal cancer in heavy smokers. We recommend the screening for colorectal cancer among the heavy smoker population.