The paper is aimed at the presentation of the new conception of nature protection. The new conception is based on the creation and protection of the representative geoecosystems. The strategic aim of defining the representative geo-ecosystem is: to determine a representative geo-ecosystem for each territorial unit on the given hierarchical level - the regional principle, to determine a representative occurrence for each type of the geo-ecosystem – the typological principle. The list of types of representative geo-ecosystems should serve as an ecologically based systematic framework for new protected areas (according to the analysis of unsufficiently protected representative geo-ecosystems) designations, as well as for methodical proposals of biocentres of the territorial system of ecological stability. The new approach to nature conservation is based not only on the protection of life forms but also on the protection of living conditions.
The paper presents an example of the creation of representative geoecosystems on the regional level–Trnava region.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the biodiversity from the stakeholders’ point of view as well as to identify the conflicts of interests and the ensuing problems between hunting and the development of other socio-economic activities in the central part of Protected Area of the Little Carpathians. The specified conflicts of interests between hunters, conservationists and farmers are followed by measures that may contribute to increase the biodiversity in this model territory.
The paper is aimed at evaluating the creation of territorial systems of ecological stability in two neighbouring countries - Slovakia and Poland. The paper evaluates various initiatives and approaches and their positives and negatives. It represents methodical approaches to the creation of territorial systems of ecological stability as well as the legal provision of ecological networks in both countries. The outcome of the evaluation is the proposal for the necessary measures to improve the situation.
Assessment of landscape quality is not possible without a good local landscape-ecological, social, economic and also political knowledge. When similar scientific researches and proposals for strategic development documents for municipalities and regions are needed, they have to come out mainly from scientific knowledge about unique and rare representative types of landscape. Implementation of a research module of the presented study entitled ‘Assessment of representative landscapes of Skalica district’ represents a complex example of a proposal on the methodical procedure of landscape-ecological analysis of Skalica district. Therefore, the core of this work lies in the detailed determination of the environmental quality of landscapes in Skalica district, which allowed us to evaluate the degree of environmental load and protection of each selected representative landscape type in the model area. This scientific knowledge is in continuation of the project complemented with opinions and attitudes of residents and key stakeholders about environmental, economic, cultural and social problems. The obtained knowledge can help towards optimal use of resources and potentials in the area and thus contribute to improving the overall quality of life in the monitored area.
László Miklós, Zita Izakovičová, Monika Offertálerová and Viktória Miklósová
The most frequent natural disasters in Slovakia are related to climatic events, in particular to the sudden intensive rains, quick run-off and unbalanced water regime. They induce soil erosion and accumulation, flash floods, landslides, overwhelming waterlogging and also draught. Since these events have an impact throughout the whole landscape - the forest, agricultural and urban landscape, which are under the management of different sectors, the integration of the sectoral planning tools for the mitigation of their consequences is inevitable. Integration is a difficult process of dual character: it requires the development of landscape-ecological methods applicable to land management tools on one side and the creation of legal provisions ensuring the transfer of those scientific principles to legislation, on the other side. This paper deals with both sides of this process in Slovakia.
Jan Dick, Amani Al-Assaf, Chris Andrews, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado, Elli Groner, Ľuboš Halada, Zita Izakovičová, Miklós Kertész, Fares Khoury, Dušanka Krasić, Kinga Krauze, Giorgio Matteucci, Viesturs Melecis, Michael Mirtl, Daniel E. Orenstein, Elena Preda, Margarida Santos-Reis, Rognvald I. Smith, Angheluta Vadineanu, Sanja Veselić and Petteri Vihervaara
The identification of parameters to monitor the ecosystem services delivered at a site is fundamental to the concept’s adoption as a useful policy instrument at local, national and international scales. In this paper we (i) describe the process of developing a rapid comprehensive ecosystem service assessment methodology and (ii) test the applicability of the protocol at 35 long-term research (LTER) sites across 14 countries in the LTER-Europe network (www.lter-europe.net) including marine, urban, agricultural, forest, desert and conservation sites. An assessment of probability of occurrence with estimated confidence score using 83 ecosystem service parameters was tested. The parameters were either specific services like food production or proxies such as human activities which were considered surrogates for cultural diversity and economic activity. This initial test of the ecosystem service parameter list revealed that the parameters tested were relatively easy to score by site managers with a high level of certainty (92% scored as either occurring or not occurring at the site with certainty of over 90%). Based on this assessment, we concluded that (i) this approach to operationalise the concept of ecosystem services is practical and applicable by many sectors of civil society as a first screen of the ecosystem services present at a site, (ii) this study has direct relevance to land management and policy decision makers as a transparent vehicle to focus testing scenarios and target data gathering, but (iii) further work beyond the scale investigated here is required to ensure global applicability.