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  • Author: Yu Ma x
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Self-esteem enhancement as a strategy for promoting the mental health and averting the occupational problems of nurses


In recent years, shortage of nurses, high turnover rate, low self-worth, and team instability have become increasingly serious. With the development of positive psychology, more and more nursing managers have begun to attach great importance to the mental health of nurses. Self-esteem, as one of the core indicators of individual mental health, has received extensive attention from researchers in different fields since its inception. This paper reviews and summarizes the research status and development trends of nurses’ self-esteem considering the aspects of self-esteem as a concept, assessment tools, significance, and intervention methods. At the same time, it also puts forward problems that need to be solved by undertaking research into nurses’ self-esteem, in order to provide a reference for further studies on nurses’ self-esteem.

Open access
Late-stage Use of Low-dose Corticosteroids Aid Recovery of Severe H1N1 Viral Pneumonia


The role of corticosteroids in the management of severely ill patients with influenza A (H1N1) viral infection is unclear and controversial. Two critically ill cases with influenza A (H1N1) infections complicated with organizing pneumonia (OP) in 2011 successfully treated with low dose corticosteroids were reported here. After initial clinical improvement, the condition of both patients aggravated 20-23 days after the onset of illness. Chest X-ray and computed tomographies (CT) showed an increment of lung infiltrates. Cultures of blood, pleural fluid and transbronchial aspirate were negative for bacteria and fungi. Organizing pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and both patients were successfully treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Low-dose corticosteroids initiated during convalescence may be beneficial for severe swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (S-OIV) infections.

Open access
Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the occipital scalp


Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare neoplasms, usually arising from peripheral nerves or showing a nerve sheath differentiation. Primary MPNSTs of the scalp is exceptionally rare, and only sporadic cases have been reported recently.

Objectives: Report a rare case of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) beneath occipital scalp, and discuss how to treat with this kind of tumor.

Methods: Descriptive study of a rare case of giant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of occipital scalp without adjuvant treatment with nine months follow up.

Results: In a 52-year-old man with MPNSTs beneath occipital scalp, the tumor was treated with complete surgical resection. Histological examination proved that the lesion was a scalp MPNST. The patient was followed up asymptomatic for the following nine months after surgical resection without adjuvant radiotherapy.

Conclusion: MPNSTs beneath the occipital scalp should be treated individually, for those well-circumscribed MPNSTs without bone destruction or brain invasion (low-grade tumors), complete surgical resection with clear margins (if possible) is recommended. Otherwise, adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy is necessary.

Open access
Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus) hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds


Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

Material and Methods: The gross anatomy of the reindeer hooves was examined. Stereo microscope (SM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe four key selected positions of reindeer hooves. Moreover, element contents of the three selected positions of reindeer hooves were analysed using the SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope.

Results: Hoof bone structures were similar to other artiodactyl animals. In the microscopic analysis, the surfaces of the ungula sphere and ungula sole presented irregular laminated structure. Ungula edge surfaces were smooth and ungula cusp surfaces had unique features. Aside from C, O, and N, reindeer hooves contained such elements as S, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. The content of the elements in different parts varied. Ti was the particular element in the ungula sole, and ungula edge lacked Mg and S which other parts contained.

Conclusion: The macro- and micro-structures of the reindeer hooves showed high performance of skid and abrasion resistance. It is most probably essential to the long distance migration for the animals.

Open access
Dumbbell-shaped primary CNS lymphoma involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland


Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland is extremely rare. Therefore, no case to our knowledge has been reported to date.

Objective: We described our findings in a 48-year-old immunocompetent man, who presented with four months progressive diabetes insipidus (DI) and two months subsequent headache.

Methods and Results: A radiological study and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhancing dumbbell-shaped lesion, 2.4⃞1.2 cm in size, involving both the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A brain biopsy was conducted through a transnasal transsphenoidal approach, and a final histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed as diffuse large B-cell malignant lymphoma. After extensive tumor surveys, including computed tomography, MRI, ultrasound, bone marrow biopsy, lumbar puncture, and positron emission tomography (PET), no evidence of other lesions found. Subsequently, he received six cycles of intravenous highdose methotrexate-based chemotherapy followed by one cycle of whole-brain radiotherapy. The progressive DI and headache completely resolved and he was in good health 11 months later.

Conclusion: Clinicians should consider the possibility of PCNSL in non specific clinical presentations.

Open access
A current review of dose-escalated radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer



The mainstay therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence constitutes the predominant failure patterns. Previous studies confirmed the relationship between increased biological equivalent doses and improved overall survival. However, the large randomized phase III study, RTOG 0617, failed to demonstrate the benefit of dose-escalation to 74 Gy compared with 60 Gy by simply increasing fraction numbers.


Though effective dose-escalation methods have been explored, including altered fractionation, adapting individualized increments for different patients, and adopting new technologies and new equipment such as new radiation therapy, no consensus has been achieved yet.

Open access