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  • Author: Yu Ma x
  • Microbiology and Virology x
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Late-stage Use of Low-dose Corticosteroids Aid Recovery of Severe H1N1 Viral Pneumonia


The role of corticosteroids in the management of severely ill patients with influenza A (H1N1) viral infection is unclear and controversial. Two critically ill cases with influenza A (H1N1) infections complicated with organizing pneumonia (OP) in 2011 successfully treated with low dose corticosteroids were reported here. After initial clinical improvement, the condition of both patients aggravated 20-23 days after the onset of illness. Chest X-ray and computed tomographies (CT) showed an increment of lung infiltrates. Cultures of blood, pleural fluid and transbronchial aspirate were negative for bacteria and fungi. Organizing pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and both patients were successfully treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Low-dose corticosteroids initiated during convalescence may be beneficial for severe swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (S-OIV) infections.

Open access
Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus) hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds


Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

Material and Methods: The gross anatomy of the reindeer hooves was examined. Stereo microscope (SM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe four key selected positions of reindeer hooves. Moreover, element contents of the three selected positions of reindeer hooves were analysed using the SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope.

Results: Hoof bone structures were similar to other artiodactyl animals. In the microscopic analysis, the surfaces of the ungula sphere and ungula sole presented irregular laminated structure. Ungula edge surfaces were smooth and ungula cusp surfaces had unique features. Aside from C, O, and N, reindeer hooves contained such elements as S, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. The content of the elements in different parts varied. Ti was the particular element in the ungula sole, and ungula edge lacked Mg and S which other parts contained.

Conclusion: The macro- and micro-structures of the reindeer hooves showed high performance of skid and abrasion resistance. It is most probably essential to the long distance migration for the animals.

Open access