Objective: The objective was to increase the understanding of vascular access in hemodialysis and evaluate hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments and the associated hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. Materials and Methods: In this study, an epidemiological investigation was conducted in 1175 patients who underwent hemodialysis in seven blood purification centers in northern Chinese. The patients were divided into two groups based on the vascular access they used: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) group and central venous catheter (CVC) group. The similarities and differences of anticoagulation and hemorrhagic, thrombotic complications were compared between two groups. Results: Arteriovenous fistula was the most frequently used vascular access, and heparin was the most commonly used anticoagulant. Patients in CVC group experienced significantly greater rates of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administration and had a higher rate in achieving thrombotic complications than those in AVF group. There were no significant differences in LMWH dosages in patients with thrombotic complications, as well as the proportion of patients who received anti-platelet drugs. Heparinized catheter lock solutions were excessively high in this study, which may lead to a risk of hemorrhage. Conclusion: Hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments in China require additional improvements, especially for the patients using CVC as vascular access. There is an urgent need to develop clinical evaluation studies of anticoagulation treatments for achieving more standardized and targeted treatments.