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Open access

He Sun, Xin Su and Yi Shi


Posaconazole (POS) is a new triazole drug with broad-spectrum in vitro activity against most yeasts and molds such as Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Zygomycetes, as well as certain species of dimorphic fungi and endemic fungi. In immunocompetent or immunocompromised animal models with invasive fungal infections, POS has demonstrated highly effective, broad-spectrum antifungal activities. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of POS were superior to those of other azoles against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Aspergillus terrus, Fusarium and Zygomycetes. In vivo susceptibility studies have shown promising efficacy of POS against life-threatening fungal infections in animal models with different immune status and infection sites.

Open access

Tong-Sheng Wang, Xiu-Li Su, Yi-Min Mao and Yu-Xia Sun


Background: Despite important advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (APE), diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is difficult in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbation.

Objective: We evaluated PE in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exacerbations of unknown origin.

Methods: Two-hundred and eight patients with COPD and severe exacerbations were studied. All patients had CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lower limb ultrasonography. Arterial blood gas measurements, D-dimers and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were recorded.

Results: The frequency of PE was 33%. The following were more common in the PE group (χ2 = 4.32-6.79, mean p < 0.05): immobilization ≥ 7 days; a ≥ 1 cm difference in edema of the lower limbs; deep venous thrombosis; syncope; S1Q3T3 syndrome; and a decrease in PaCO2 ≥ 5 mm Hg. Plasma D-dimers and ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the PE group. Risk factors identified from logistic regression analysis were immobilization ≥ 7 days, ≥ 1 cm difference in lower limb edema, and deep venous thrombosis.

Conclusions: Overall, 33% of 208 patients had a PE, and the risk was greater in those who had been immobilized, those who had a ≥ 1 cm difference in edema of the lower limbs, and those who had a deep venous thrombosis.