Linhai Yang, Zhongping Lai, Hao Long and Jingran Zhang
It has been suggested that the standardised growth curve (SGC) method can be used to de-terminate De accurately and reduce the measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we report the construction of quartz OSL SGC for 35 aeolian samples from different parts of the Horqin dunefield in northeastern China, and then test their applicability for De determination. Our results suggest that: 1) up to a regeneration dose of 80 Gy, the SGC of the Horqin dunefield can be fitted using the exponential plus linear equation, with the r2 value of 0.97, and all the regeneration dose points closely stick to the fitting line, implying that all samples share a very similar dose-response curve; 2) for samples with Des ranging from 1 to 50 Gy, the ratios of SAR De to SGC De fall within the range of 0.9–1.1, and the average ratio of SAR De to SGC De is 1.01±0.01, close to unity. Therefore, the construction of SGC is correct, and the SGC is an effective procedure for accurate De determination for samples from the study area.
Huili Yang, Jie Chen, Naomi Porat, Tao Li, Wenqiao Li and Weipeng Xiao
Optical dating of earthquake related sediments were investigated including one modern sample and three samples from a trench excavated across the 1985 Ms7.4 Wuqia Earthquake surface rupture. The results indicated that equivalent dose (De) values vary with grain size and the method used for De determination. The residual dose of the modern sample is 0.1 ka (
Gy) for the quartz single grain measurements. Only 1.5–3.6% of the grains have a detectable OSL signal. Single grain quartz ages are similar to the expected ages. Fine grain quartz results overestimate the De values and are much older than single grain quartz and coarse grain quartz small aliquot standardized growth curve (SA-SGC) ages. Single grain quartz OSL dating may be optimal for dating earthquake related deposits, but SA-SGC can save measurement time and has potential for dating some poorly bleaching samples.
Feng Chen, Yujiang Yuan, Wenshou Wei, Shulong Yu, Yang Li, Ruibo Zhang, Tongwen Zhang and Huaming Shang
Chronology Development and Climate Response Analysis of Schrenk Spruce (Picea Schrenkiana) Tree-Ring Parameters in the Urumqi River Basin, China
Seven different tree-ring parameters (total tree-ring width, earlywood width, latewood width, maximum latewood density, minimum earlywood density, average earlywood density, and average latewood density) were obtained from Schrenk spruce in the Urumqi River Basin, China. The chronologies were analyzed individually and then compared with each other. The relationships between the different tree-ring parameters and climate data (Daxigou) are also presented. Earlywood-related parameters (earlywood width, minimum density, and earlywood density) were more sensitive to climate than those of latewood. Temperature (July) was found to be the most strongly related to the earlywood density. Based on the results of climate response analysis, the potential of tree-ring chronologies from this species to provide climate reconstructions in the Urumqi River Basin has been established. This study demonstrates that the use of tree-ring density data can increase the climate information obtained from tree-ring and should lead to improved paleoclimate reconstructions in Central Asian.
Philemon Lindagato, Yongjun Li, Gaoxue Yang, Fenghao Duan and Zuopeng Wang
The study area in the West Junggar Basin is known to be rich in hydrothermal gold deposits and occurrences, even though there has been minimum exploration in the area. It is here hypothesised that this area could host more gold deposits if mineral exploration methods were to be reinforced. This research is aimed at identifying geochemical anomalies of Au, and determining possible factors and conditions which facilitate the formation of anomalies by referring to As and Hg as gold pathfinders. Geostatistical analyst techniques have been applied to 9,852 stream sediments and bedrock data collected on a total surface of 1,280 km2 of West Junggar, Xinjiang (northwest China). The kriging interpolation and quantile-quantile plot methods, combined with statistical methods, successfully identified both Au and its pathfinders’ anomalies. In the present study, median was considered as background values (10.2 ppm for As, 9.13 ppb for Hg and 2.5 ppb for Au), whereas the 95th percentile were threshold values (28.03 ppm for As, 16.71 ppb for Hg and 8.2 ppb for Au) and values greater than thresholds are geochemical anomalies. Moreover, the high concentrations of these three discovered elements are caused primarily by hydrothermal ore mineralisation and are found to be controlled mainly by the Hatu and Sartohay faults of a northeast-southwesterly direction as well as their related secondary faults of variable orientation, which facilitate the easy flow of hydrothermal fluids towards the surface resulting in the formation of geochemical anomalies. Most of anomalies concentration of Au are found near the mining sites, which indicates that the formation of new Au anomalies is influenced by current or previous mining sites through geological or weathering processes. In addition, the low concentration of gold and its pathfinders found far from active gold mine or faults indicates that those anomalies are formed due to primary dispersion of hosting rock.
Marián Putiš, Yue-Heng Yang, Tomáš Vaculovič, Matúš Koppa, Xian-Hua Li and Pavel Uher
Perovskite (Prv) was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia). Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member)+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel)+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv)+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite). Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core”) to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce), Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti) anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti) anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the end-member composition. In spite of low concentrations of isomorphic constituents, Prv-1 and Prv-2 display the A(La,Ce)3++B(Fe,Cr)3+=ACa2++BTi4+ heterovalent couple substitution. A decrease of ferric iron in Prv-2 indicates increasing reduction conditions during rodingitization.
Renchao Yang, A.J. (Tom) van Loon, Wei Yin, Aiping Fan and Zuozhen Han
The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China).
The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.
Guang-Quan Chen, Liang Yi, Xing-Yong Xu, Hong-Jun Yu, Jian-Rong Cao, Qiao Su, Lin-Hai Yang, Yong-Hang Xu, Jun-Yi Ge and Zhong-Ping Lai
It has been suggested that the standardized growth curve (SGC) method can be used to accurately determinate equivalent dose (De) and reduce measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we evaluated quartz OSL SGCs of marine and coastal sediments of different grain sizes and different cores in the south Bohai Sea in China, and tested their applicability to the determination of De values. Our results suggested as follows: (1) The SGC method is applicable to both multiple- and single-aliquot regenerative-dose (MAR and SAR) protocols of OSL dating and efficiently provides reliable estimates of De. (2) Finesand quartz of different palaeodoses showed highly similar dose-response curves and an SGC was developed, but old samples using the SGC method have large uncertainties. (3) For coarse-silt quartz, two different types of dose-response curves were recorded: low-dose (≤60Gy) and high-dose (≥100Gy). The growth curves of low-dose quartz were similar to each other, facilitating the use of SGC in De estimations, but errors tended to be larger than those obtained in the SAR method. For high-dose (100–300Gy) quartz, the SGC was also found to be reliable, but there was large uncertainty in De (>300Gy) estimation. We suggest that SGC could be employed for the dating of marine and coastal sediments dating using either MAR or SAR OSL protocol and either fine-silt, coarse-silt or fine-sand quartz.