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Wojciech Manaj, Wojciech Wronicz and Andrzej Michałowski


The application of a new type of alloy requires the evaluation of its properties, which is typically achieved with destructive methods. For this purpose, among others, static and fatigue mechanical tests are performed. Tests are performed on standardized samples in a way which reflects the level of stress occurring in real elements. These tests should limit random errors associated with sample preparation. For this reason the proper preparation of samples is crucial, not only in terms of their geometric dimensions but also in terms of the residual stress level. A sample preparation process was developed, involving checking samples’ surface for cracks, scratches, roughness, and the state of stress. The measurements are performed with nondestructive methods so as not to affect the proceeding research.

In this study, the residual stress and features of a mechanically prepared surface were characterized. The specimens were subjected to various surface finishes mainly, lathe turning and grinding surface conditions. The effects of residual surface stress (measured by XRD) were studied after machining and polishing.

Open access

Józef Krysztofik, Wojciech Manaj and Grzegorz Socha


Structural properties of materials change under stress, temperature and work environment. These changes are generally unfavorable. They cause a reduction in strength of materials. This has an impact on the safety and service life of machines and constructions.

In the chemical and petrochemical industry the destruction of a structure can be activated by chemical substances. In the energy industry, a key element in assisting the destruction is temperature. In aviation, the typical cause of damage is the process of fatigue. Regardless of the differences regarding/concerning the mechanisms of degradation, typical of the sectors of industry, the end result is the emergence of microvoids and microcracks in the material. In the final phase of the process, dominant cracks are formed.

The term of measure of material damage, introduced by Kachanov and Rabotnow, can be effectively used also when considering the impact of microdamages on measurable macroscopic acoustic quantities. A damage parameter proposed by Johnson allows to correlate changes in acoustic birefringence of the material with the parameter describing the degree of damage.

In this article the authors presented the nondestructive tests results concerning Inconel 718 alloy subjected to damage caused by plastic deformation. This paper focuses on the evaluation of acoustic properties in relation to the degradation of the materials tested.

Open access

Jacek Nawrocki, Kamil Gancarczyk, Wojciech Manaj, Robert Albrecht, Rafał Cygan and Krzysztof Krupa


This paper analyses the nickel based superalloy Inconel 713C casts typically used in high and low pressure turbines of aircraft engines. The ingots were manufactured in the Research and Development Laboratory for Aerospace Materials at the Rzeszów University of Technology. The superalloy structures were analysed by the following methods: X-ray diffraction orientation measurement and ultrasonic wave propagation. Ultrasonic techniques are mainly used to measure the blade wall’s thickness. Measurement accuracy is determined by the velocity of the ultrasonic wave in the material tested. This work evaluates the effect of the nickel-based superalloy microstructure on the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation. Three different macrostructures: equiax (EQ), directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) were analysed. The authors determined the crystal misorientation in the obtained casts as the deviation of [001] crystallographic direction from the withdrawal axis or the main axis of the ingots. The measurements performed allowed researchers to identify significant differences in the wave velocity between EQ, DS and SX structures.