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Z. Budjko and V. Zēbergs

Influence of Changes in Hot Water Consumption on the DHS Development

The methodology proposed in the paper is based on the concept of Energy Efficiency Uninterrupted Development Cycle (EEUDC). The goal of the authors was to clarify how the district heating system (DHS) development is affected by the heat consumption. The primary emphasis was given to the hot water consumption, with its noticeable daily fluctuations as well as changes caused by those in the inhabitants' way of life. The methodology, which is in good agreement with the ideology of advanced management of DHS development, employs the ISO 14000 series of standards (widely applied in the sphere of environment management). In the work, experimental results are presented that have been obtained through monitoring the hot water consumption. The results evidence that this consumption and its usage indices correspond to the level achieved by Western (in particular, North-European) countries. This circumstance changes considerably the input data for calculation of DHS elements, making it possible to work out appropriate measures in order to improve the DHS efficiency through step-by-step replacement of the elements with high energy loss.

Open access

J. Ekmanis, V. Zebergs, N. Zeltins and V. Vrublevski

Thermal Characteristics of New Building Materials and their Effect upon the Energy Efficiency

The paper formulates the role of thermal inertia of the building materials in the energy supply of buildings and in solution of the energy efficiency problems. The evolution of construction entails the application of new building materials as well as of glazed surfaces in the envelopes of buildings. An analysis is made of the influence of the thermal resistance of building materials and their heat capacity on the thermal inertia indicators of buildings. An inertia scale of buildings has been developed for the choice of the heat supply capacities of buildings at low outdoor temperatures under extreme conditions of the Latvian climate. The ratio of the ventilation capacities has been analysed in the total heating balance at a low thermal inertia of buildings. The significance of innovative ventilation technologies for raising the energy efficiency has been considered.

Open access

J. Michna, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins, V. Zebergs and J. Siemianowicz


The paper presents a continuation in the series of works devoted to the acute problems of energy use management in different periods of economic transition in the CEE countries. Research carried out by the team of scientists has resulted in creation of modern management methods. In particular, unitary indices were worked out which connect the consumption of energy carriers and environment pollutions in a definite time period and the values of production (services) realised in this period.

The cooperation of researchers from different countries has given rise to the ICEEP (International Center of Energy and Environment Policy), where under research are issues of the risk management in the conditions of informational uncertainty, non-knowledge, as well as dynamic and stochastic behaviour of systems (processes). The main emphasis in the methodical approaches is given to the complex (strategic) thinking, which would be necessary for establishment of global regulations in the scope of energy and environment conservation.

Open access

J. Michna, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins, V. Zebergs and J. Siemianowicz

Innovation Risk Management in the Rational Energy Use (Part 2)

The paper (written in two parts) is a continuation in the series of works devoted to the acute problems of risk management in various areas associated with energy and environment conservation. While in Part 1 the authors developed general conceptions of risk management as related to the rational energy use, Part 2 presents a closer examination of specific problems arising in this sphere when innovations are involved.

The relevant methodical approaches have mostly been elaborated at the International Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (ICEEP).

Open access

R. Ney, J. Michna, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins and V. Zebergs

Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.

Open access

F. Molochko, A. Molochko, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins and V. Zebergs

Estimation of the Energy Security Level and Definition of the Criteria for Damage Forecasts

In the work, the energy security indicators in a region (a state) are considered, and two general directions are proposed for search among the criteria for estimation and forecast of the damage inflicted by power supply limitations: based on the differentiated calculations for each economic subject, and on the generalised indices of regional economy. Of especial interest is analysis of a recently introduced damage intensity factor and its dependence on the level of limitations and the type of energy carriers.