Dilatometric data for Astaloy CrM (3% Cr-0.5% Mo) and Astaloy CrL (1.5% Cr-0.2% Mo) powders with additions of 0.3% carbon and 3.0% manganese during sintering cycles up to 1120 and 1250°C in different atmospheres are reported. For comparison, also Astaloy CrM and Astaloy CrL powders were investigated. Starting with green densities of approx. 6.8 g/cm3, the final density of sintered compacts was influenced mainly by the sintering temperature, while the results showed the only minor effect of the sintering atmosphere on the final dimensional changes. However, the sintering atmosphere influences the sintering behaviour, microstructure and the final chemical composition of sintered compacts. In sintered and in the dilatometer cooled Mn-Cr-Mo-C steels predominantly bainitic structures were obtained.
Aluminium oxide layer on aluminium particles cannot be avoided. However, to make the metal-metal contacts possible, this sintering barrier has to be overcome in some way, necessarily to form sintering necks and their development. It is postulated that the disruption of alumina layer under sintering conditions may originate physically and chemically. Additionally, to sinter successfully non alloyed aluminium powder in nitrogen, the operation of both types mechanism is required. It is to be noted that metallic aluminium surface has to be available to initiate reactions between aluminium and the sintering atmosphere, i.e. mechanical disruption of alumina film precedes the chemical reactions, and only then chemically induced mechanisms may develop. Dilatometry, gravimetric and differential thermal analyses, and microstructure investigations were used to study the sintering response of aluminium at 620°C in nitrogen, which is the only sintering atmosphere producing shrinkage.
V. Kovtun, V. Pasovets and T. Pieczonka
Physico-mechanical and structural properties of electrocontact sintered copper matrix- carbon nanoparticles composite powder materials are presented. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the influence of preliminary mechanical activation of the powder system on distribution of carbon nanoparticles in the metal matrix. Mechanical activation ensures mechanical bonding of nanoparticles to the surface of metal particles, thus giving a possibility for manufacture of a composite with high physico-mechanical properties.
M. Sułowski, A. Ciaś and T. Pieczonka
The paper presents the effect of sintering conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon Mn-Cr-Mo PM steels. It was proved there is no effect of tempering temperature on the properties of Astaloy CrL-base steels, sintered at 1250°C in 5%H2-95%N2 mixture as compared with the properties of those sintered at 1120°C. The properties of Astaloy CrM-based steels, sintered at 1250°C in air were comparable or higher to Astaloy CrL-based steels. The addition of lump of ferromanganese was not sufficient for metal oxides reduction. The structure investigation confirmed the earlier observations that Mn-Cr-Mo PM steels have predominantly martensitic or martensitic/bainitic microstructure.
J. Roemer, L. Pieczonka, M. Juszczyk and T. Uhl
The paper presents an application of laser spot thermography for damage detection in ceramic samples with surface breaking cracks. The measurement technique is an active thermographic approach based on an external heat delivery to a test sample, by means of a laser pulse, and signal acquisition by an infrared camera. Damage detection is based on the analysis of surface temperature distribution near the exciting laser spot. The technique is nondestructive, non-contact and allows for full-field measurements. Surface breaking cracks are a very common type of damage in ceramic materials that are introduced in the manufacturing process or during the service period. This paper briefly discusses theoretical background of laser spot thermography, describes the experimental test rig and signal processing methods involved. Damage detection results obtained with laser spot thermography are compared with reference measurements obtained with vibrothermography. This is a different modality of active thermography, that has been previously proven effective for this type of damage. We demonstrate that both measurement techniques can be effectively used for damage detection and quality control applications of ceramic materials.
V. Kovtun, V. Pasovets and T. Pieczonka
The properties of the electrocontact sintered metal-polymer composite materials are strongly determined by the heat flow taking place during sintering, which, in turn, is influenced by the amount and initial distribution of the polymer particles in the metal matrix. In case of the metal-polymer powder mixture in the form of a thin layer deposited on the bulk metal substrate, the influence of the latter is also taken into consideration. Thus, the model simulating the heating and sintering of the thin layer made of metal-polymer powder mixture on a metal plate is proposed. Based on mathematical calculations relating to the model describing the thermal state of the system, it is shown how heat flow fields are formed within the layer, depending on the polymer content and its distribution. These theoretical simulations seem to be useful in optimising the production of the antifriction metal-polymer layer on a bulk copper substrate by electrocontact sintering. The results of the tribological experiments and microstructural observations are in a good agreement with the theoretical model.