Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram
This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD50 and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for these microorganisms were in 2-5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD50 value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, premature atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease in the future.
AIM: This study is designed to assess the relationship between serum adiponectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and lipid profile among Egyptian overweight and obese children.
METHODS: This cross sectional case control study included 40 selected pre-pubertal overweight and obese children, 24 girls (60%) and 16 boys (40%) aged between 5 to 13 years (8.85 ± 2.7 years), from new cases attending the National nutrition institute clinic during 2013. Forty apparently healthy children of matched age and sex were recruited as a control group.
RESULTS: Obese group showed highly significant higher levels of serum ADMA, triglycerides, and total cholesterol compared with healthy controls (P < 0.000 in all). However, serum adiponectin levels were highly significant lower in obese children compared to healthy controls (P < 0.000). Serum ADMA showed significant positive correlations with height, serum total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels and significant negative correlation with the body mass index and weight for age z score. Serum adiponectin showed significant negative correlations with BMI, weight, and weight for age z score and significant positive correlation with serum triglycerides. By linear regression analysis; serum adiponectin, and serum triglycerides levels were significant predictors of high serum ADMA level (p =0.045 and 0.015 respectively). BMI, weight, height and serum triglycerides were significant predictors of low serum adiponectin levels (p = 0.005, 0.022, 0.026 and 0.015 respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.