Potential Health Benefits of Bread Supplemented with Defatted Flaxseeds under Dietary Regimen in Normal and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
Flaxseed is a rich source of dietary fibers and lignans. Uncontrolled diabetes may induce complication represented by dyslipidemia, high oxidative stress and kidney dysfunction. In the present research the beneficial effect of two months consumption of bread supplemented with defatted flaxseeds (DFB) together with dietary regimen was evaluated in normal and type 2 diabetic patients. Protective effect towards diabetic complications was studied through evaluation of plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, liver and kidney function. The nutritional status of normal and diabetic patients was evaluated through assessing body mass index and nutrients' intake. Results showed reduction of body mass index in both normal and diabetic patients after nutritional intervention. Analysis of mean dietary intake of normal and diabetic patients in the beginning of the study revealed that all subjects were hyper-caloric that reduced to be 79% and 84% from RDA, respectively after treatment. After two months of supplementation with DFB, diabetic patients showed significant reduction of plasma glucose. Both diabetic patients and normal subjects showed significant improvement in plasma lipid profile and significant reduction of lipid peroxidation. Consumption of DFB in addition of dietary regimen may be helpful in preventing diabetes and its complications.
The present study investigated the protective effect of extracts prepared from grape, coriander, roselle and fennel in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. A mixture of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts was prepared from a given plant. Six groups of rats were analyzed; control healthy, cisplatin group and 4 test groups where rats were given a daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP) were assessed in the extracts. Results showed roselle ethanol extract to have the highest phenolic content (15.584 g GAE/100 g extract). Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of linoleic and linolenic acid in all studied plants. Coriander oil showed the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (85%). GLC investigation of the UNSAP showed the presence of campesterol in all the studied plants. Grape oil contained the highest content of phytosterol (15.9%). Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction in plasma albumin, total protein, catalase activity and total antioxidant level as well as reduction in creatinine clearance compared to normal control. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction by cisplatin. Chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extract mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Extracts mixture under study offered protection from cisplatin induced kidney dysfunction via antioxidant and possibly anti-inflammatory actions
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing in adults and are likely to be increasing in children. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the protective effect of rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil against high fructose diet (HFD) inducing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The results showed significant elevation of plasma total and direct bilirubin, transaminases activities, total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Ch), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant increase in liver TG, T-Ch and MDA along with significant reduction in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch) and increase in T-Ch/HDL-Ch in rats fed HFD compared to rats fed on balanced diet. Histopathology of liver of rats fed on HFD confirmed the induction of NASH. Rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil produced improvement in the biochemical parameters with different degrees. Pumpkin seed oil reversed all histopathological changes that occur in liver tissue which became comparable to normal in some rats. In conclusion, rats fed high fructose diet are a good model for studying NASH. Rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil afford hepato protection against NASH in rat model.