Schemes for Compensation of Chromatic Dispersion in Combined HDWDM Systems
The authors seek best ways to realize chromatic dispersion (CD) compen-sation schemes for differently modulated optical signals in high-speed mixed data rate HDWDM systems. The research is based on OptSim 5.1. simulation software, which numerically solves nonlinear Schrödinger equation using the split-step Fourier method. It is shown that the CD compensation scheme is crucial for the performance evaluation in combined HDWM transmission channels. Therefore, a scheme of the type is proposed that is suited best for a very complicated combined fiber optical transmission system. It is also found that asymmetrical CD compensation schemes in pre- and post-compensation modules are the most efficient, allowing the best BER in a channel to be achieved.
As known, many multi-purpose plants can be used in different industries. This research is focused on the possibilities to utilize hemp as feedstock for thermal insulation products. The most advantageous features of hemp insulation are associated with health and environmental safety. The thermal conductivity of commercially available hemp insulation products is comparable with that of other fibrous insulation materials; however, it is possible to develop new products that could be more efficient in terms of cost and due to other important features.
Considering the growing demand for broadband of access networks, in the present paper we investigate various modulation formats as a way of increasing the performance of optical transmission systems. Non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keying, return-to-zero (RZ) OOK, carrier suppressed RZ (CSRZ) OOK, duobinary (DB), NRZ differential phase shift keying (NRZDPSK), RZ-DPSK and CSRZ-DPSK formats are compared using the maximal achievable reach with bit error rate less than 10−9 as a criterion. Simulations are performed by using OptSim software tool. It is shown that using the transmission system without dispersion compensation the best results are shown by duobinary and CSRZ-OOK modulation formats, but with the system using dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) the longest transmission distance is achieved by RZ-DPSK modulation format. By investigating the influence of channel spacing for best-performed modulation formats, network reach decrease for transmission systems with DCF fiber has been observed due to channel crosstalk.